Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective anti-neoplasm drug, but its cardiac toxicity limits its clinical use. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has been found to be involved in the process of heart failure. It is unclear whether EndMT contributes to Dox-induced cardiomyopathy (DoIC). Calcitriol, an active form Vitamin D3, blocks the growth of cancer cells by inhibiting the Smad pathway. To investigate the effect of calcitriol via inhibiting EndMT in DoIC, C57BL/6 mice and endothelial-specific labeled mice were intraperitoneally administered Dox twice weekly for 4 weeks (32 mg/kg cumulative dose) and were subsequently treated with or without calcitriol for 12 weeks. Echocardiography revealed diastolic dysfunction at 13 weeks following the first Dox treatment, accompanied by increased myocardial fibrosis and up-regulated pro-fibrotic proteins. Calcitriol attenuated Dox-induced myocardial fibrosis, down-regulated pro-fibrotic proteins and improved diastolic function. Endothelial fate tracing revealed that EndMT-derived cells contributed to Dox-induced cardiac fibrosis. In vitro, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and mouse cardiac fibroblasts were treated with Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β with or without calcitriol. Morphological, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot analyses revealed that TGF-β-induced EndMT and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT) were attenuated by calcitriol by the inhibition of the Smad2 pathway. Collectively, calcitriol attenuated DoIC through the inhibition of the EndMT and FMT processes.