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      Spontaneous biliary peritonitis with common bile duct stones: report of a case

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          Abstract

          Spontaneous biliary peritonitis is rare in adults. We herein report a case of spontaneous biliary peritonitis. An 84-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain for 5 days. He developed fever, jaundice, and abdominal rigidity. Computed tomography (CT) revealed massive ascites in the omental bursa and around the liver. The ascites obtained by diagnostic paracentesis was dark yellow-green in color, which implied bile leakage. With a diagnosis of bile peritonitis, the patient underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy. There was massive biliary ascites in the abdominal cavity, especially in the omental bursa. Because exploration failed to demonstrate the perforation site in the gallbladder and biliary duct, we performed abdominal lavage alone. Postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed stones in the common bile duct, and there was no evidence of biliary leakage. Endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage was performed using a plastic stent to reduce the pressure of the common bile duct. After the operation, the patient showed satisfactory recovery and started oral intake on postoperative day 8. However, the patient developed heart failure due to renal dysfunction with nephrotic syndrome at 1 month after the operation. With a diagnosis of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis due to immune complex, the patient received steroid treatment for nephritis, diuretics, and carperitide for heart failure. Although heart failure and renal dysfunction improved by these treatment, the patients developed toxic epidermal necrolysis which was refractory to intensive treatments including steroid pulse and immunoglobulin, and the patient died 76 days after the operation.

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          Nontraumatic perforation of the bile duct in adults.

          Nontraumatic perforation of the bile duct in adults is rare, and the management of this condition should resolve the primary pathologic lesion. Retrospective analysis of 11 patients who were diagnosed as having nontraumatic perforation of the bile duct. A public university medical center and a private university medical center. Five men and 6 women (median age, 64 years) with nontraumatic perforation of the bile duct were treated between September 1993 and May 2003. Two patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones, who were initially diagnosed as having mediastinal abscess and subcapsular biloma, respectively, were treated by nonoperative management, ie, endoscopic sphincterotomy and percutaneous abscess drainage. The remaining 9 patients were treated surgically, which included an exploration of the CBD, placement of a T tube, and a liver resection. Initial manifestation, primary disease, perforation site, management, surgical morbidity, and mortality. All patients had acute abdominal pain, which was caused by intraabdominal abscess in 7 patients, diffuse bile peritonitis in 3, and subcapsular biloma in 1. Their primary diseases were CBD stones in 7 patients, intrahepatic duct stone in 2, a choledochal cyst in 1, and phytobezoar with food stuff in the CBD in 1. Perforations occurred at the left intrahepatic duct in 9 patients, the CBD in 1, and the cyst wall in 1. All patients recovered, except 1 patient who expired owing to multiorgan failure because the operation could not be performed in time. Nontraumatic perforation of the bile duct should be suspected if perihepatic abscess or peritonitis is combined with biliary stone disease. The management of nontraumatic perforation of the bile duct should include the eradication of the primary pathologic lesion and the control of abscess or peritonitis.
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            Spontaneous biliary tract perforations: an unusual cause of peritonitis in pregnancy. Report of two cases and review of literature

            Spontaneous perforations of the biliary tract are rare in adults and even more so during pregnancy. Perforation of the gall bladder is a potentially fatal complication of cholecystitis. The infrequency of perforation in the setting of calculous disease of the gall bladder is probably due to the thickened wall of the organ that has long been the seat of chronic inflammation. Common bile duct perforations have been reported in adults most commonly in association with choledocholithiasis. The diagnosis of biliary tract perforations is often delayed due to their non specific symptoms, which results in high morbidity. Early diagnosis and aggressive therapy are mandatory to alleviate this condition. Delayed diagnoses and treatment may have more serious consequences for pregnant women than for other patients. Very few cases of biliary tract perforations have been reported in pregnant women. We report two such cases in pregnancy: first of a gall bladder perforation associated with cholelithiasis and the second of a common bile duct perforation in pregnancy in which no apparent cause was found.
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              Clinicopathological analysis of idiopathic perforation of the gallbladder.

              Idiopathic perforation of the gallbladder (IPGB) is a rare event, and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics of this disorder. We reported a case of IPGB, and reviewed 30 other cases reported up to the end of 2005 in a Medline and Japan Centra Revuo Medicina search of the medical literature. We analyzed the clinical findings, laboratory data, and histopathological features. The mean age of the patients was 70.2 +/- 12.8 years, and there were 19 men and 12 women. Underlying diseases such as hypertension, cerebral infarction or hemorrhage, renal failure, respiratory failure, and malignancy were reported in 35.5% of the patients. Perforation was found more often in the fundus (53.3%) than in the body (43.3%) or neck (3.3%) of the gallbladder. Thrombus was found in the intramural vessels of the gallbladder wall in 13 patients (50%), whereas 13 (50%) were free of thrombus. Serum amylase was significantly higher in the intramural vessels in the thrombus-negative group than in the thrombus-positive group. The overall operative mortality was 3.3%. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that a delay of more than 24 h from the manifestation of symptoms to operation and a perforation size greater than 2 cm required significantly longer hospitalization. Thrombosis in the intramural vessels seems to be related to the events leading to IPGB; however, it is difficult to consider it the only cause. Early operation and the size of the perforation are important determinants of the outcome of treatment for IPGB.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +81-3-34331111 , rhamura@jikei.ac.jp
                Journal
                Surg Case Rep
                Surg Case Rep
                Surgical Case Reports
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                2198-7793
                27 September 2016
                27 September 2016
                December 2016
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Surgery, Mashiko Hospital, Saitama, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Surgery, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8, Nishi-Shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461 Japan
                Article
                234
                10.1186/s40792-016-0234-6
                5039139
                27679466
                2ffe3292-d5a0-4009-bde0-5bda55f5edad
                © The Author(s). 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Categories
                Case Report
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                spontaneous biliary peritonitis,common bile duct stones

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