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      Anatomical and radiological angiographic study of the coronary ostia in the adult human hearts and their clinical significance

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          This study was carried out to investigate the morphometric parameters and variations of coronary ostia in the hearts of adult human cadavers and coronary angiographs. The hearts of 60 adult human cadavers and 400 coronary angiographs were used in this study. The root of the aorta was carefully dissected to clear aortic sinuses, coronary ostia, and sinutubular junction (STJ). Number, locations, internal diameter distance between coronary ostia and their corresponding STJ, sinus bottom, and valve commissures were investigated. The anterior aortic sinus (AAS) revealed a single ostium for right coronary artery (RCA) in 77.5% of male and 80% of female hearts. This ostium gave a common origin for RCA and third coronary artery (TCA) in 15% of male and 20% of female hearts. However, two separate ostia for RCA and TCA origin were seen in 20% of male and 15% of female hearts. Moreover, three ostia were seen in one male and one female hearts within AAS. Meanwhile, the left posterior aortic sinus showed a single ostium for left coronary artery (LCA) in 97.5% of male and 95% of female hearts and two ostia in one male and one female hearts. The ostia were commonly seen below STJ and less commonly were observed above STJ. The distance between the bottom of aortic sinus and LCA ostium was longer than that of RCA. The internal diameter of RCA ostium was significantly ( P<0.05) narrower than that of LCA but with no significant sex difference. Moreover, anomalous of coronary ostia was observed in seven out 400 angiographs and in two cadaveric hearts. Knowledge the morphometric parameters and anatomical variations of coronary ostia helps the cardiac surgeons to overcome the possible difficulties that could occur during surgical and radiological coronary interventions.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Coronary artery anomalies: classification and ECG-gated multi-detector row CT findings with angiographic correlation.

          Congenital abnormalities of the coronary arteries are an uncommon but important cause of chest pain and, in some cases of hemodynamically significant abnormalities, sudden cardiac death. For several decades, premorbid diagnosis of coronary artery anomalies has been made with conventional angiography. However, this imaging technique has limitations due to its projectional and invasive nature. The recent development of electrocardiographically (ECG)-gated multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) allows accurate and noninvasive depiction of coronary artery anomalies of origin, course, and termination. Multi-detector row CT is superior to conventional angiography in delineating the ostial origin and proximal path of an anomalous coronary artery. Familiarity with the CT appearances of various coronary artery anomalies and an understanding of the clinical significance of these anomalies are essential in making a correct diagnosis and planning patient treatment. (c) RSNA, 2006.
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            Incidence of anomalous origin of coronary artery in 1879 Chinese adults on dual-source CT angiography.

            Background and Objective. Dual-source CT (DSCT) has been used to detect coronary artery anomalies. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of anomalous origin of the coronary artery in Chinese adults. Methods. We summarised all patients who underwent DSCT coronary angiography (CTCA) from December 2006 to February 2008, and data of anomalous origin of the coronary artery in Chinese adults were recorded. Results. 1879 patients underwent CTCA during that period; 24 patients with an anomalous origin of the coronary artery were detected, giving an incidence of 1.3%. Fifteen patients had an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery (12 from left coronary sinus, 3 high takeoff), eight patients had an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery (LCA from posterior sinus of Valsalva in three cases, LCX from the right coronary sinus, LCX from RCA, high takeoff, LCA from right coronary sinus, and single coronary artery in one case, respectively), and one patient had an anomalous origin of both coronary arteries (high takeoff). Conclusion. The incidence of anomalous origin of the coronary artery in Chinese adults in this study is 1.3%. DSCT can clearly visualise the anomalous origin and course of the coronary artery and is a useful screening modality. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:466-70.).
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              A study on principal branches of coronary arteries in humans


                Author and article information

                [1 ]Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
                [2 ]Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
                [3 ]Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Ashraf Youssef Nasr. Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, P.O Box 80205, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. Tel: +966-12-6401000 (ext. 20477), Fax: +966-12-6401000 (ext. 20121), ashrafnaeem2013@ , ashrafnaeem2013@
                Anat Cell Biol
                Anat Cell Biol
                Anatomy & Cell Biology
                Korean Association of Anatomists
                September 2018
                28 September 2018
                : 51
                : 3
                : 164-173
                Copyright © 2018. Anatomy & Cell Biology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article
                Clinical Research

                Cell biology

                cadaver, human, angiography, anatomy, coronary ostia


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