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      Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006 Translated title: Desigualdades sociais e crescimento das mortes violentas em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil: 2000-2006

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          Abstract

          An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.

          Translated abstract

          Com o objetivo de analisar a evolução das desigualdades socioespaciais na mortalidade por causas externas e homicídios em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, entre 2000-2006, foi realizado um estudo ecológico, tendo as zonas de informação e estratos sociais como unidades de análise. O Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) e a Secretaria Municipal de Saúde foram fontes de dados. As causas básicas de óbito foram revisadas e reclassificadas com base em relatórios do IML. As zonas de informação foram classificadas em quatro estratos sociais a partir da renda e da escolaridade. Calculou-se a razão entre as taxas de mortalidade (razão de desigualdade). Verificou-se aumento de 98,5% na taxa de homicídios no período. Em 2000, o risco de morte por causas externas e homicídios no estrato de piores condições de vida foi, respectivamente, 1,40 e 1,94 vezes maior que no estrato de referência. Em 2006, esses valores foram de 2,02 e 2,24. Os autores discutem as implicações para as políticas públicas intersetoriais evidenciadas pelos achados do presente estudo.

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          Most cited references 58

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          The fallacy of the ecological fallacy: the potential misuse of a concept and the consequences.

          Ecological studies have been evaluated in epidemiological contexts in terms of the "ecological fallacy." Although the empirical evidence for a lack of comparability between correlations derived from ecological- and individual-level analyses is compelling, the conceptual meaning of the ecological fallacy remains problematic. This paper argues that issues in cross-level inference can be usefully conceptualized as validity problems, problems not peculiar to ecological-level analyses. Such an approach increases the recognition of both potential inference problems in individual-level studies and the unique contributions of ecological variables. This, in turn, expands the terrain for the location of causes for disease and interventions to improve the public's health.
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            The Victims of Homicide: A Temporal and Cross-National Comparison

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                csp
                Cadernos de Saúde Pública
                Cad. Saúde Pública
                Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Rio de Janeiro )
                1678-4464
                2011
                : 27
                : suppl 2
                : s298-s308
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal da Bahia Brazil
                Article
                S0102-311X2011001400016
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                Health Policy & Services

                Public health

                Social Inequity, Violence, Homicide, Iniquidades Social, Violência, Homicídio

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