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      Vitamin D reduces falls and hip fractures in vascular Parkinsonism but not in Parkinson’s disease

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Vitamin D supplementation is suggested to reduce the risk of falls in older institutionalized or ambulatory individuals by 20%. The present study was undertaken to address the reduced risk, by vitamin D supplementation, of falls and hip fractures in patients with vascular Parkinsonism (VP) and Parkinson’s disease (PD).

          Patients and methods

          In the open-label-study, 94 elderly patients with VP and 92 age-matched patients with PD were followed for 2 years. All patients received 1200 IU ergocalciferol daily. The number of falls per person and incidence of hip fractures were compared between the two groups.

          Results

          At baseline, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels were in the deficient range (<25 nmol/L) in all patients, and vitamin D treatment enhanced serum 25-OHD and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in both groups. Improved muscle strength of lower extremities was observed in both groups. There was significant difference between the two groups in the number of falls per subject during the 2 years (1.9 ± 0.5 in the PD group and 0.8 ± 0.4 in the VP group, P < 0.001). Hip fractures occurred in seven of 88 in the PD group and one in 90 of the VP group during the 2-year study period ( P = 0.035).

          Conclusion

          It is suggested that vitamin D decreases falls and hip fractures in VP by increasing muscle strength but not in PD.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Risk factors for falls as a cause of hip fracture in women. The Northeast Hip Fracture Study Group.

          Although even in the elderly most falls are not associated with fractures, over 90 percent of hip fractures are the result of a fall. Few studies have assessed whether the risk factors for falls are also important risk factors for hip fracture. To examine the importance of risk factors for falls in the epidemiology of hip fracture, we performed a case-control study of 174 women (median age, 80 years) admitted with a first hip fracture to 1 of 30 hospitals in New York and Philadelphia. Controls, matched to the case patients according to age and hospital, were selected from general surgical and orthopedic surgical hospital services. Information was obtained by direct interview. As measured by the odds ratio, increased risks for hip fracture were associated with lower-limb dysfunction (odds ratio = 1.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.8), visual impairment (odds ratio = 5.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 13.9), previous stroke (odds ratio = 2.0; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 4.0), Parkinson's disease (odds ratio = 9.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 76.1), and use of long-acting barbiturates (odds ratio = 5.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 45.0). Of the controls, 44 (25 percent) had had a recent fall. The case patients were more likely than these controls to have fallen from a standing height or higher (odds ratio = 2.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 5.7). Of those with hip fracture the younger patients (less than 75 years old) were more likely than the older ones (greater than or equal to 75 years old) to have fallen on a hard surface (odds ratio = 1.9; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 3.7). A number of factors that have been identified as risk factors for falls are also associated with hip fracture, including lower-limb dysfunction, neurologic conditions, barbiturate use, and visual impairment. Given the prevalence of these problems among the elderly, who are at highest risk, programs to prevent hip fracture should include measures to prevent falls in addition to measures to slow bone loss.
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            Role of vitamin D in skeletal muscle function.

             R Boland (1986)
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              Clinicopathological investigation of vascular parkinsonism, including clinical criteria for diagnosis.

              Vascular parkinsonism (VP) is difficult to diagnose with any degree of clinical certainty. We investigated the importance of macroscopic cerebral infarcts and pathological findings associated with microscopic "small vessel disease" (SVD) in the aetiology of VP. The severity of microscopic SVD pathology (perivascular pallor, gliosis, hyaline thickening, and enlargement of perivascular spaces) and the presence of macroscopically visible infarcts were assessed in 17 patients with parkinsonism and no pathological evidence of either Parkinson's disease or any histopathological condition known to be associated with a parkinsonian syndrome, and compared with age-matched controls. Microscopic SVD pathology was significantly more severe in the parkinsonian brains. Most patients presented with bilateral bradykinesia and rigidity together with a gait disorder characterised predominantly by a shuffling gait. Four patients presented acutely with hemiparesis and then progressed to develop a parkinsonian syndrome. They could be distinguished from the remaining VP patients by the presence at autopsy of macroscopically visible lacunar infarcts in regions where contralateral thalamocortical drive might be reduced. The clinical features at presentation varied according to the speed of onset and the underlying vascular pathological state. New clinical criteria for a diagnosis of VP are proposed based on the clinicopathological findings of this study. Copyright 2004 Movement Disorder Society
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2013
                2013
                22 April 2013
                : 9
                : 171-176
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Tagawa, Japan
                [2 ]Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                [3 ]Department of Food and Nutrition, Tezukayama University, Nara, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yoshihiro Sato, Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, 3237 Yugeta, Tagawa 826-0041, Japan, Tel +81 947 44 0924, Fax +81 947 46 3090, Email y-sato@ 123456ktarn.or.jp
                Article
                tcrm-9-171
                10.2147/TCRM.S43811
                3639218
                23637537
                © 2013 Sato et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                vitamin d, vascular parkinsonism, parkinson’s disease, hip fracture, fall

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