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      Sexual and reproductive health problems among women with mental illness attending tertiary care psychiatric outpatient clinic in India: A cross-sectional study

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          Abstract

          Objectives:

          Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is a vital concern among women with mental illness (WMI) due to the increased risk for unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and poor obstetric outcomes. Objective of the study was to explore the current use of family planning (FP) methods, symptoms of STIs and sexual dysfunction among WMI.

          Materials and Methods:

          This descriptive study involved 404 WMI of reproductive age (18-49 years) attending tertiary care psychiatric outpatient clinics in India. During face-to-face interviews, centers for disease control and prevention (CDC)-reproductive health assessment toolkit-FP questionnaire, STI questionnaire and Female sexual function index (FSFI) were used to collect the data.

          Results:

          Of 404 WMI, 261(64.6%) were users, and 137 (33.9%) were non-users of FP methods. About 6(1.5%) WMI did not respond FP methods question. Female sterilization was the highest among the users, 244(93%). Among non-users, 100 (73%) were unaware of choosing the effective method of FP. Most of the WMI, 377(93.3%), were unaware of STIs. The symptoms of STI reported include unusual genital discharge 62(15.3%) and genital ulcers/ sores 58(14.4 %). Most of them, 76(63.3%), were not on any treatment. The most common reason for not taking treatment was feeling ashamed 70(92.1%). Female sexual dysfunction was reported in 176(43.6%). Most of the WMI had difficulties in the arousal domain 288(71.3%), followed by low desire 233(57.7%) and dissatisfaction 186(46%).

          Conclusion:

          Most WMI underwent sterilization. Non-users of FP methods were not aware of choosing the effective method. Awareness about STIs was poor, and feeling ashamed was the primary reason for not availing of medical help. Nearly half of the WMI reported sexual dysfunction, among which arousal difficulties, low desire and dissatisfaction were common. Health professionals need to increase awareness about FP methods and symptoms of STIs among WMIs. Women require appropriate counselling regarding SRH and treatment for sexual dysfunction.

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          Most cited references27

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          Is Open Access

          Investigation of the freely available easy-to-use software ‘EZR' for medical statistics

          Y Kanda (2012)
          Although there are many commercially available statistical software packages, only a few implement a competing risk analysis or a proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent covariates, which are necessary in studies on hematopoietic SCT. In addition, most packages are not clinician friendly, as they require that commands be written based on statistical languages. This report describes the statistical software ‘EZR' (Easy R), which is based on R and R commander. EZR enables the application of statistical functions that are frequently used in clinical studies, such as survival analyses, including competing risk analyses and the use of time-dependent covariates, receiver operating characteristics analyses, meta-analyses, sample size calculation and so on, by point-and-click access. EZR is freely available on our website (http://www.jichi.ac.jp/saitama-sct/SaitamaHP.files/statmed.html) and runs on both Windows (Microsoft Corporation, USA) and Mac OS X (Apple, USA). This report provides instructions for the installation and operation of EZR.
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            The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): a multidimensional self-report instrument for the assessment of female sexual function.

            This article presents the development of a brief, self-report measure of female sexual function. Initial face validity testing of questionnaire items, identified by an expert panel, was followed by a study aimed at further refining the questionnaire. It was administered to 131 normal controls and 128 age-matched subjects with female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) at five research centers. Based on clinical interpretations of a principal components analysis, a 6-domain structure was identified, which included desire, subjective arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. Overall test-retest reliability coefficients were high for each of the individual domains (r = 0.79 to 0.86) and a high degree of internal consistency was observed (Cronbach's alpha values of 0.82 and higher) Good construct validity was demonstrated by highly significant mean difference scores between the FSAD and control groups for each of the domains (p < or = 0.001). Additionally, divergent validity with a scale of marital satisfaction was observed. These results support the reliability and psychometric (as well as clinical) validity of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) in the assessment of key dimensions of female sexual function in clinical and nonclinical samples. Our findings also suggest important gender differences in the patterning of female sexual function in comparison with similar questionnaire studies in males.
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              Gender disadvantage and reproductive health risk factors for common mental disorders in women: a community survey in India.

              Gender disadvantage and reproductive health are major determinants of women's health in developing countries. To determine the association of factors indicative of gender disadvantage and reproductive health with the risk of common mental disorders (CMDs) in women. Cross-sectional survey from November 1, 2001, to June 15, 2003. A total of 3000 women randomly selected from a sampling frame of women aged 18 to 45 years in Goa; 2494 women participated. The primary outcome was the presence of a CMD, as defined by the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. An interview and blood and vaginal/urine specimens were collected to ascertain risk factors. The prevalence of CMD was 6.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7%-7.6%). Mixed anxiety-depressive disorder was the most common diagnosis (64.8%). Factors independently associated with the risk for CMD were factors indicative of gender disadvantage, particularly sexual violence by the husband (odds ratio [OR], 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.6), being widowed or separated (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.0-30.0), having low autonomy in decision making (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.2-3.2), and having low levels of support from one's family (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3); reproductive health factors, particularly gynecological complaints such as vaginal discharge (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.2-4.8) and dyspareunia (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.6); and factors indicative of severe economic difficulties, such as hunger (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.6). There was no association between biological indicators (anemia and reproductive tract infections) and CMD. The clinical assessment of CMD in women must include exploration of violence and gender disadvantage. Gynecological symptoms may be somatic equivalents of CMD in women in Asian cultures.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Neurosci Rural Pract
                J Neurosci Rural Pract
                JNRP
                Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
                Scientific Scholar
                0976-3147
                0976-3155
                12 August 2023
                10 November 2023
                Oct-Dec 2023
                : 14
                : 4
                : 644-649
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Nursing, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences , Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
                [2 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kanachur Institute of Medical Science , Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
                [3 ]Department of Nursing, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences , Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
                [4 ]Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences , Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
                [5 ]Department of Biostatistics, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences , Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
                [6 ]Department of Community Health Nursing, Yenepoya Nursing College, Yenepoya Deemed to be University , Mangaluru, Karnataka, India.
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding author: Sundarnag Ganjekar, Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. sundarnag@ 123456nimhans.ac.in
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2430-2014
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2417-2785
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1450-1191
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2015-693X
                Article
                10.25259/JNRP_62_2023
                10.25259/JNRP_62_2023
                10696317
                38059232
                300c20e0-64b8-46c5-a059-843a08fd5772
                © 2023 Published by Scientific Scholar on behalf of Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, transform, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                History
                : 06 February 2023
                : 29 June 2023
                Funding
                Financial support and sponsorship
                Nil.
                Categories
                Original Article

                Neurosciences
                sexual health,reproductive health,family planning,sexually transmitted infections,women,mental illness

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