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      Dynamic Expression of 11 MiRNAs in 83 Consecutive Primary and Corresponding Recurrent Glioblastoma: Correlation to Treatment, Time to Recurrence, Overall Survival and MGMT Methylation Status


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          Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and the most malignant glioma subtype. Among numerous genetic alterations, miRNAs contribute to pathogenesis of GBM and it is suggested that also to GBM recurrence and resistance to therapy. Based on publications, we have selected 11 miRNAs and analyzed their expression in GBM. We hypothesized that selected miRNAs are differentially expressed and involved in primary as well as in recurrent GBM, that show significant expressional differences when different treatment options are in question, and that are related to certain patients and tumor characteristics.

          Patients and methods

          Paraffin embedded tissues, obtained from primary and corresponding recurrent tumor from 83 patients with primary GBM were used. Eleven miRNAs ( miR-7, miR-9, miR-15b, miR-21, miR-26b, miR-124a, miR-199a, let-7a, let-7b, let-7d, and let-7f) were selected for qPCR expression analysis. For patients who received temozolamide (TMZ) as chemotherapeutic drug, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status was defined using the methyl-specific PCR.


          There was a significant change in expression of miR-7, miR-9, miR-21, miR-26b, mirR-124a, miR-199a and let-7f in recurrent tumor compared to the primary. In recurrent tumor, miR-15b, let-7d and let-7f significantly changed comparing both treatment options. We also observed difference in progression free survival between patients that received radiotherapy and patients that received radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and longer survival for patients who received chemotherapy after second surgery compared to not treated patients. miR-26b showed correlation to progression free survival and let-7f to overall survival. We did not find any expression difference between the tumors with and without methylated MGMT.


          Our data suggest that analyzed miRNAs may not only contribute to pathogenesis of primary GBM, but also to tumor progression and its recurrence. Moreover, expression of certain miRNAs appears to be therapy-dependent and as such they might serve as additional biomarker for recurrence prediction and potentially predict a therapy-resistance.

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          Most cited references35

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          Molecular markers in glioma.

          Gliomas are the most malignant and aggressive form of brain tumors, and account for the majority of brain cancer related deaths. Malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma are treated with radiation and temozolomide, with only a minor benefit in survival time. A number of advances have been made in understanding glioma biology, including the discovery of cancer stem cells, termed glioma stem cells (GSC). Some of these advances include the delineation of molecular heterogeneity both between tumors from different patients as well as within tumors from the same patient. Such research highlights the importance of identifying and validating molecular markers in glioma. This review, intended as a practical resource for both clinical and basic investigators, summarizes some of the more well-known molecular markers (MGMT, 1p/19q, IDH, EGFR, p53, PI3K, Rb, and RAF), discusses how they are identified, and what, if any, clinical relevance they may have, in addition to discussing some of the specific biology for these markers. Additionally, we discuss identification methods for studying putative GSC's (CD133, CD15, A2B5, nestin, ALDH1, proteasome activity, ABC transporters, and label-retention). While much research has been done on these markers, there is still a significant amount that we do not yet understand, which may account for some conflicting reports in the literature. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the investigator will be able to utilize one single marker to prospectively identify and isolate GSC from all, or possibly, any gliomas.
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            miR-124 inhibits STAT3 signaling to enhance T cell-mediated immune clearance of glioma.

            miRNAs (miR) have been shown to modulate critical gene transcripts involved in tumorigenesis, but their role in tumor-mediated immunosuppression is largely unknown. On the basis of miRNA gene expression in gliomas using tissue microarrays, in situ hybridization, and molecular modeling, miR-124 was identified as a lead candidate for modulating STAT3 signaling, a key pathway mediating immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. miR-124 is absent in all grades and pathologic types of gliomas. Upon upregulating miR-124 in glioma cancer stem cells (gCSC), the STAT3 pathway was inhibited, and miR-124 reversed gCSC-mediated immunosuppression of T-cell proliferation and induction of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). Treatment of T cells from immunosuppressed glioblastoma patients with miR-124 induced marked effector response including upregulation of interleukin (IL)-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Both systemic administration of miR-124 or adoptive miR-124-transfected T-cell transfers exerted potent anti-glioma therapeutic effects in clonotypic and genetically engineered murine models of glioblastoma and enhanced effector responses in the local tumor microenvironment. These therapeutic effects were ablated in both CD4(+)- and CD8(+)-depleted mice and nude mouse systems, indicating that the therapeutic effect of miR-124 depends on the presence of a T-cell-mediated antitumor immune response. Our findings highlight the potential application of miR-124 as a novel immunotherapeutic agent for neoplasms and serve as a model for identifying miRNAs that can be exploited as immunotherapeutics. ©2013 AACR.
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              Role of MicroRNA-26b in Glioma Development and Its Mediated Regulation on EphA2

              Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of multiple target genes. Deregulation of miRNAs is common in human tumorigenesis. Low level expression of miR-26b has been found in glioma cells. However, its underlying mechanism of action has not been determined. Methodology/Principal Findings Real-time PCR was employed to measure the expression level of miR-26b in glioma patients and cells. The level of miR-26b was inversely correlated with the grade of glioma. Ectopic expression of miR-26b inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioma cells. A binding site for miR-26b was identified in the 3′UTR of EphA2. Over-expression of miR-26b in glioma cells repressed the endogenous level of EphA2 protein. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) experiments were performed to further confirm the effects of miR-26b on the regulation of EphA2, and the results showed that miR-26b inhibited the VM processes which regulated by EphA2. Significance This study demonstrated that miR-26b may act as a tumor suppressor in glioma and it directly regulates EphA2 expression. EphA2 is a direct target of miR-26b, and the down-regulation of EphA2 mediated by miR-26b is dependent on the binding of miR-26b to a specific response element of microRNA in the 3′UTR region of EphA2 mRNA.

                Author and article information

                Radiol Oncol
                Radiol Oncol
                Radiology and Oncology
                December 2018
                26 November 2018
                : 52
                : 4
                : 422-432
                [1 ]deptDepartment of Neurosurgery , universityUniversity Clinical Center , Ljubljana, Slovenia
                [2 ]deptDepartment of Molecular Genetics , Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine , universityUniversity of Ljubljana , Ljubljana, Slovenia
                [3 ]Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine , universityUniversity of Ljubljana , Ljubljana, Slovenia
                Author notes
                [* ] Damjan Glavač, Ph.D., Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Pathology, Korytkova 2, Faculty of Medicine, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Phone: +386 1 543 7180, Fax: +386 1 543 7181 damjan.glavac@ 123456mf.uni-lj.si
                * Authors contributed equally to this work.
                © 2018 Bostjan Matos, Emanuela Bostjancic, Alenka Matjasic, Mara Popovic, Damjan Glavac, published by Sciendo

                This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Research Article

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                glioblastoma, recurrent, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, mirna, expression


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