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      Converting carbohydrates to bulk chemicals and fine chemicals over heterogeneous catalysts

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      Green Chemistry

      Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)

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          Synthesis of transportation fuels from biomass: chemistry, catalysts, and engineering.

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            Metal chlorides in ionic liquid solvents convert sugars to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

            Replacing petroleum feedstocks by biomass requires efficient methods to convert carbohydrates to a variety of chemical compounds. We report the catalytic conversion of sugars giving high yield to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a versatile intermediate. Metal halides in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride are catalysts, among which chromium (II) chloride is found to be uniquely effective, leading to the conversion of glucose to HMF with a yield near 70%. A wide range of metal halides is found to catalyze the conversion of fructose to HMF. Only a negligible amount of levulinic acid is formed in these reactions.
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              Phase modifiers promote efficient production of hydroxymethylfurfural from fructose.

              Furan derivatives obtained from renewable biomass resources have the potential to serve as substitutes for the petroleum-based building blocks that are currently used in the production of plastics and fine chemicals. We developed a process for the selective dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that operates at high fructose concentrations (10 to 50 weight %), achieves high yields (80% HMF selectivity at 90% fructose conversion), and delivers HMF in a separation-friendly solvent. In a two-phase reactor system, fructose is dehydrated in the aqueous phase with the use of an acid catalyst (hydrochloric acid or an acidic ion-exchange resin) with dimethylsulfoxide and/or poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) added to suppress undesired side reactions. The HMF product is continuously extracted into an organic phase (methylisobutylketone) modified with 2-butanol to enhance partitioning from the reactive aqueous solution.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                GRCHFJ
                Green Chemistry
                Green Chem.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                1463-9262
                1463-9270
                2011
                2011
                : 13
                : 3
                : 520
                Article
                10.1039/c0gc00639d
                © 2011
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=c0gc00639d

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