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      Predominance of Type-2 Immune Response in Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy

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          Abstract

          Background: The Th1/Th2 paradigm is proving increasingly useful in the understanding of infectious diseases and many autoimmune diseases. Th1 cells predominantly produce interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and are instrumental in initiating delayed-type hypersensitivity and activating macrophages. Th2 cells secrete other cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 that trigger B-cell activation and immunoglobulin synthesis. It has been shown that in patients with membranous nephropathy, there may be a predominance of Th2, because of the presence of IgG, particularly IgG4, which belongs to a subclass of the type-2 immune response, and complement deposits in glomeruli. In this study, we investigated the immunoresponse of helper T cells, i.e. Th predominance in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Methods: We used flow cytometry to assess the levels of circulating Th cells in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (n = 8) and in normal individuals (n = 23) based on the expression of intracellular type-1 and type-2 cytokines. Because the production of each of these cytokines has a specific time course, we observed the cytokine synthesis at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h after stimulation. Results: The percentages of IL-2+/CD4+ cells from patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy were significantly lower than those from normal individuals at 6, 9 and 12 h, with the difference becoming more significant over time. IFN-γ+/CD4+ cells and IL-4+/CD4+ cells were not significantly different between the two groups. In patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, the percentages of IL-10+/CD4+ cells were significantly higher than those in normal individuals at each point in time. Conclusion: Increased IL-10-producing Th cells may lead to suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity and activate suppressor cells and IgG4 synthesis, resulting in idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Evidence for shock acceleration of high-energy electrons in the supernova remnant SN1006

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            Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and viral IL-10 strongly reduce antigen-specific human T cell proliferation by diminishing the antigen-presenting capacity of monocytes via downregulation of class II major histocompatibility complex expression

            Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and viral IL-10 (v-IL-10) strongly reduced antigen-specific proliferation of human T cells and CD4+ T cell clones when monocytes were used as antigen-presenting cells. In contrast, IL- 10 and v-IL-10 did not affect the proliferative responses to antigens presented by autologous Epstein-Barr virus-lymphoblastoid cell line (EBV-LCL). Inhibition of antigen-specific T cell responses was associated with downregulation of constitutive, as well as interferon gamma- or IL-4-induced, class II MHC expression on monocytes by IL-10 and v-IL-10, resulting in the reduction in antigen-presenting capacity of these cells. In contrast, IL-10 and v-IL-10 had no effect on class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression on EBV-LCL. The reduced antigen-presenting capacity of monocytes correlated with a decreased capacity to mobilize intracellular Ca2+ in the responder T cell clones. The diminished antigen-presenting capacities of monocytes were not due to inhibitory effects of IL-10 and v-IL-10 on antigen processing, since the proliferative T cell responses to antigenic peptides, which did not require processing, were equally well inhibited. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of IL-10 and v-IL-10 on antigen-specific proliferative T cell responses could not be neutralized by exogenous IL-2 or IL-4. Although IL-10 and v-IL-10 suppressed IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- alpha), and IL-6 production by monocytes, it was excluded that these cytokines played a role in antigen-specific T cell proliferation, since normal antigen-specific responses were observed in the presence of neutralizing anti-IL-1, -IL-6, and -TNF-alpha mAbs. Furthermore, addition of saturating concentrations of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha to the cultures had no effect on the reduced proliferative T cell responses in the presence of IL-10, or v-IL-10. Collectively, our data indicate that IL-10 and v-IL-10 can completely prevent antigen-specific T cell proliferation by inhibition of the antigen-presenting capacity of monocytes through downregulation of class II MHC antigens on monocytes.
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              Cytokine-induced differentiation of precursor mouse CD8+ T cells into cytotoxic CD8+ T cells secreting Th1 or Th2 cytokines.

              Alloantigen-stimulated CD8+ mouse spleen cells, either spontaneously or in the presence of IL-12 or IFN gamma plus anti-IL-4, differentiate into CD8+ T cells secreting a Th1-like cytokine pattern (IL-2 and IFN gamma). IL-4 induced differentiation into CD8+ T cells secreting Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10), whereas anti-IFN gamma suppressed the development of CD8+ cells secreting IFN gamma. Clones of IL-4- or IFN gamma-producing CD8+ T cells were relatively stable, as IL-4 or IFN gamma did not cause interconversion of committed CD8+ T cells. Both CD8+ subsets were cytotoxic, failed to provide cognate help for B cell antibody production, and remained CD4-, CD8 alpha+ CD8 beta+. We propose the names TC1 and TC2 for cytotoxic CD8+ T cells secreting Th1-like and Th2-like cytokines, respectively.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2002
                June 2002
                03 June 2002
                : 91
                : 2
                : 255-261
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, and bDepartment of Nephrology, Tokyo Medical University Kasumigaura Hospital, Ami, Ibaraki, Japan
                Article
                58401 Nephron 2002;91:255–261@5L}@4A}
                10.1159/000058401
                12053062
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 39, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/58401
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