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      Desempenho e digestibilidade de novilhos zebuínos confinados recebendo leveduras vivas e monensina Translated title: Growth performance and digestibility of feedlot Zebu steers fed yeast and monensin

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          Abstract

          Foi avaliado o efeito da adição de cultura de leveduras vivas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cepa 1026), da monensina e da combinação dos dois aditivos em dietas de alto concentrado, sobre as características de desempenho de novilhos confinados e sobre a digestibilidade aparente da dieta. Novilhos Nelore (339 kg PV, 20 meses de idade, n= 72) foram alimentados por 84 dias com uma dieta basal (2,58 Mcal EM/kg MS, 14% PB) sem aditivos (controle) ou suplementada com levedura (0,6 g de Beef Sacc®/kg de matéria seca), monensina (0,3 g de Rumensin®/kg de matéria seca) ou a adição de ambos aditivos para avaliar o desempenho em confinamento por meio da mensuração individual do consumo, ganho de peso e medidas de ultra-som da espessura de gordura subcutânea nos músculos Longissimus (12ª costela) e Biceps femoris. Outros quatro novilhos foram designados aleatoriamente aos tratamentos seguindo um delineamento em quadrado latino a fim de determinar os efeitos dos tratamentos sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e ácido da dieta. Não houve efeitos dos aditivos sobre o consumo de matéria seca e na taxa de aumento da espessura de gordura subcutânea e em área do músculo Longissimus, entretanto, a levedura tendeu a diminuir o ganho de peso médio diário e aumentar a conversão alimentar (p<0,10). Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente das frações estudadas não foram influenciados pela adição dos aditivos na dieta (p>0,10). A adição de leveduras vivas, monensina ou da combinação de ambos pode não ser importante sobre a terminação de bovinos de corte confinados com dieta de alto concentrado.

          Translated abstract

          The effect of adding live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, strain 1026), monensin or the combination of both additives to high grain diets on feedlot performance and digestibility of steers, was studied. Nellore steers (n= 72, 339 kg BW, 20 months-old) were fed for 84 days a basal ration (2.58 Mcal EM/kg DM, 14% CP) without additives (control), or with yeast culture (0.6 g Beef Sacc®/ kg DM), monensin (0.3 g Rumensin®/ kg DM) or the combination of both additives to evaluate feedlot performance through individual measurements of dry matter intake, average daily gain and ultra-sound scanning of carcass subcutaneous fat thickness upon Longissimus (12th rib) and Biceps femoris muscle and rib eye area. Other four steers were randomly allotted to one of the treatments in a 4 x 4 latin square design in order to assess digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber fractions of the diet. There were no effects of additives on dry matter intake and rate of growth of carcass fat thickness and rib eye area. Yeast culture tended to decrease average daily gain and increase feed conversion (p<0.10). Digestibility was not affected by treatments (p>0.10). Supplementation of live yeast culture, monensin or the combination of both may not be important on finishing beef steers fed high grain diets in feedlot.

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          Methane emissions from cattle.

          Increasing atmospheric concentrations of methane have led scientists to examine its sources of origin. Ruminant livestock can produce 250 to 500 L of methane per day. This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to 100 yr to be a little less than 2%. Many factors influence methane emissions from cattle and include the following: level of feed intake, type of carbohydrate in the diet, feed processing, addition of lipids or ionophores to the diet, and alterations in the ruminal microflora. Manipulation of these factors can reduce methane emissions from cattle. Many techniques exist to quantify methane emissions from individual or groups of animals. Enclosure techniques are precise but require trained animals and may limit animal movement. Isotopic and nonisotopic tracer techniques may also be used effectively. Prediction equations based on fermentation balance or feed characteristics have been used to estimate methane production. These equations are useful, but the assumptions and conditions that must be met for each equation limit their ability to accurately predict methane production. Methane production from groups of animals can be measured by mass balance, micrometeorological, or tracer methods. These techniques can measure methane emissions from animals in either indoor or outdoor enclosures. Use of these techniques and knowledge of the factors that impact methane production can result in the development of mitigation strategies to reduce methane losses by cattle. Implementation of these strategies should result in enhanced animal productivity and decreased contributions by cattle to the atmospheric methane budget.
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            Antibiotics in animal feed and their role in resistance development

            Animals and humans constitute overlapping reservoirs of resistance, and consequently use of antimicrobials in animals can impact on public health. For example, the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in food-animals is associated with the use of avoparcin, a glycopeptide antibiotic used as a feed additive for the growth promotion of animals. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci and vancomycin resistance determinants can therefore spread from animals to humans. The bans on avoparcin and other antibiotics as growth promoters in the EU have provided scientists with a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of the withdrawal of a major antimicrobial selective pressure on the occurrence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The data shows that although the levels of resistance in animals and food, and consequently in humans, has been markedly reduced after the termination of use, the effects on animal health and productivity have been very minor.
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              Effect of yeast culture supplement on production, rumen fermentation, and duodenal nitrogen flow in dairy cows.

              Six lactating Holstein cows fitted with rumen and T-type duodenal cannulas were used in a crossover design to examine effects of yeast culture supplement on production parameters, rumen fermentation, and flow of N to the duodenum. Treatments were control and control plus 10 g/d of yeast culture. Dry matter intake was greater, and milk production tended to be higher, for cows supplemented with yeast culture, but milk composition was not affected. Rumen pH was not affected by yeast culture, but peak lactic acid concentration decreased from 1.93 to 1.73 mM. Rumen fluid acetate:propionate ratio, dilution rate (percentage per hour), and ammonia N concentration (milligrams per deciliter) were 2.28, .12, and 10.7 and 2.04, .13, and 9.6 for control cows and for cows supplemented with yeast culture, respectively. Although numbers of fiber-digesting bacteria were not affected by yeast culture, DM disappearance of wheat straw tended to be higher at 12 and 24 h, and CP and ADF digestibilities were greater. Duodenal NAN flow tended to be higher in cows supplemented with yeast culture because of higher bacterial N flow. Duodenal AA profile and flow of Met were significantly affected by yeast culture supplementation. The results suggest that yeast culture may alter the AA profile of bacterial protein.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                azoo
                Archivos de Zootecnia
                Arch. zootec.
                Universidad de Córdoba (Córdoba )
                0004-0592
                December 2011
                : 60
                : 232
                : 1077-1086
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                Article
                S0004-05922011000400023
                10.4321/s0004-05922011000400023
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                AGRICULTURE, DAIRY & ANIMAL SCIENCE
                VETERINARY SCIENCES

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