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      Effect of wavelength and beam width on penetration in light-tissue interaction using computational methods

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      1 , , 2 , 1 , 1
      Lasers in Medical Science
      Springer London
      IPL, Laser, Monte Carlo, Penetration

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          Abstract

          Penetration depth of ultraviolet, visible light and infrared radiation in biological tissue has not previously been adequately measured. Risk assessment of typical intense pulsed light and laser intensities, spectral characteristics and the subsequent chemical, physiological and psychological effects of such outputs on vital organs as consequence of inappropriate output use are examined. This technical note focuses on wavelength, illumination geometry and skin tone and their effect on the energy density (fluence) distribution within tissue. Monte Carlo modelling is one of the most widely used stochastic methods for the modelling of light transport in turbid biological media such as human skin. Using custom Monte Carlo simulation software of a multi-layered skin model, fluence distributions are produced for various non-ionising radiation combinations. Fluence distributions were analysed using Matlab mathematical software. Penetration depth increases with increasing wavelength with a maximum penetration depth of 5378 μm calculated. The calculations show that a 10-mm beam width produces a fluence level at target depths of 1–3 mm equal to 73–88% (depending on depth) of the fluence level at the same depths produced by an infinitely wide beam of equal incident fluence. Meaning little additional penetration is achieved with larger spot sizes. Fluence distribution within tissue and thus the treatment efficacy depends upon the illumination geometry and wavelength. To optimise therapeutic techniques, light-tissue interactions must be thoroughly understood and can be greatly supported by the use of mathematical modelling techniques.

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          Most cited references19

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          The Optics of Human Skin

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            Photosensitizers of the porphyrin and phthalocyanine series for photodynamic therapy

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              Immuno gold nanocages with tailored optical properties for targeted photothermal destruction of cancer cells.

              Gold nanocages with a relatively small size (e.g., approximately 45 nm in edge length) have been developed, and the structure of these nanocages was tailored to achieve strong absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region for photothermal cancer treatment. Numerical calculations show that the nanocage has a large absorption cross section of 3.48 x 10(-14) m(2), facilitating conversion of NIR irradiation into heat. The gold nanocages were conjugated with monoclonal antibodies (anti-HER2) to target epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) that are overexpressed on the surface of breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3). Our preliminary photothermal results show that the nanocages strongly absorb light in the NIR region with an intensity threshold of 1.5 W/cm(2) to induce thermal destruction to the cancer cells. In the intensity range of 1.5-4.7 W/cm(2), the circular area of damaged cells increased linearly with the irradiation power density. These results suggest that this new class of bioconjugated gold nanostructures, immuno gold nanocages, can potentially serve as an effective photothermal therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                caerwynash@yahoo.co.uk
                Journal
                Lasers Med Sci
                Lasers Med Sci
                Lasers in Medical Science
                Springer London (London )
                0268-8921
                1435-604X
                12 September 2017
                12 September 2017
                2017
                : 32
                : 8
                : 1909-1918
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9280 9077, GRID grid.12362.34, School of Applied Computing, , University of Wales Trinity Saint David, ; Swansea, SA1 6ED UK
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0430 9259, GRID grid.412917.8, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, ; 550 Wilmslow Rd, Manchester, M20 4BX UK
                Article
                2317
                10.1007/s10103-017-2317-4
                5653719
                28900751
                301e3480-a4ce-49fe-a526-7856e641dad5
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                History
                : 2 November 2016
                : 28 August 2017
                Funding
                Funded by: University of Wales Trinity St. David
                Categories
                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag London Ltd. 2017

                Medical physics
                ipl,laser,monte carlo,penetration
                Medical physics
                ipl, laser, monte carlo, penetration

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