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      • Record: found
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      Exercise and autonomic function.

      Coronary Artery Disease

      Autonomic Nervous System, physiology, Coronary Disease, prevention & control, Exercise, Female, Hemodynamics, Homeostasis, Humans, Male, Sensitivity and Specificity, Physical Endurance, Physical Fitness

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          Abstract

          The complex interplay between the dichotomous subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system establishes and maintains a delicately tuned homeostasis in spite of an ever-changing environment. Aerobic exercise training can increase activity of the parasympathetic nervous system and decrease sympathetic activity. Conversely, it is well-documented that cardiac disease is often characterized by attenuated parasympathetic activity and heightened sympathetic tone. A correlation between autonomic disequilibrium and disease has led to the hypothesis that exercise training, as a therapy that restores the autonomic nervous system towards normal function, may be associated with, and possibly responsible for, outcome improvements in various populations. This is merely one of the many benefits that is conferred by chronic exercise training and reviewed in this issue.

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          Most cited references 47

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          An overview of randomized trials of rehabilitation with exercise after myocardial infarction.

          Of 22 randomized trials of rehabilitation with exercise after myocardial infarction (MI), one trial had results that achieved conventional statistical significance. To determine whether or not these studies, in the aggregate, show a significant benefit of rehabilitation after myocardial infarction, we performed an overview of all randomized trials, involving 4,554 patients; we evaluated total and cardiovascular mortality, sudden death, and fatal and nonfatal reinfarction. For each endpoint, we calculated an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the trials combined. After an average of 3 years of follow-up, the ORs were significantly lower in the rehabilitation than in the comparison group: specifically, total mortality (OR = 0.80 [0.66, 0.96]), cardiovascular mortality (OR = 0.78 [0.63, 0.96]), and fatal reinfarction (OR = 0.75 [0.59, 0.95]). The OR for sudden death was significantly lower in the rehabilitation than in the comparison group at 1 year (OR = 0.63 [0.41, 0.97]). The data were compatible with a benefit at 2 (OR = 0.76 [0.54, 1.06]) and 3 years (OR = 0.92 [0.69, 1.23]), but these findings were not statistically significant. For nonfatal reinfarction, there were no significant differences between the two groups after 1 (OR = 1.09 [0.76, 1.57]), 2 (OR = 1.10 [0.82, 1.47]), or 3 years (OR = 1.09 [0.88, 1.34]) of follow-up. The observed 20% reduction in overall mortality reflects a decreased risk of cardiovascular mortality and fatal reinfarction throughout at least 3 years and a reduction in sudden death during the 1st year after infarction and possibly for 2-3 years. With respect to the independent effects of the physical exercise component of cardiac rehabilitation, the relatively small number of "exercise only" trials, combined with the possibility that they may have had a formal or informal nonexercise component precludes the possibility of reaching any definitive conclusion. To do so would require a randomized trial of sufficient size to distinguish between no effect and the most plausible effect based on the results of this overview.
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            Timolol-induced reduction in mortality and reinfarction in patients surviving acute myocardial infarction.

            (1981)
            A multicenter double-blind randomized study was carried out to compare the effect of timolol (10 mg twice daily) with that of placebo in patients surviving acute myocardial infarction. Treatment was started seven to 28 days after infarction in 1884 patients (945 taking timolol, and 939 placebo), who represented 52 per cent of those evaluated for entry; the patients were followed for 12 to 33 months (mean, 17). There were 152 deaths in the placebo group and 98 in the timolol group. When deaths that occurred during treatment or within 28 days of withdrawal were considered, the cumulated sudden-death rate over 33 months was 13.9 per cent in the placebo group and 7.7 per cent in the timolol group--a reduction of 44.6 per cent (P = 0.0001). The cumulated reinfarction rate was 20.1 per cent in the placebo group and 14.4 per cent in the timolol group (P = 0.0006). We conclude that long-term treatment with timolol in patients surviving acute myocardial infarction reduces mortality and the rate of reinfarction.
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              Frequency domain measures of heart period variability and mortality after myocardial infarction

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                Journal
                10758814

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