Erik Meijaard 1 , 2 , 3 , * , Damayanti Buchori 4 , 5 , Yokyok Hadiprakarsa 4 , 6 , Sri Suci Utami-Atmoko 6 , 7 , Anton Nurcahyo 8 , Albertus Tjiu 6 , 9 , Didik Prasetyo 6 , Nardiyono 4 , 6 , Lenny Christie 6 , Marc Ancrenaz 10 , Firman Abadi 11 , I Nyoman Gede Antoni 12 , Dedy Armayadi 13 , Adi Dinato 14 , Ella 8 , Pajar Gumelar 15 , Tito P. Indrawan 16 , Kussaritano 17 , Cecep Munajat 18 , C. Wawan Puji Priyono 19 , Yadi Purwanto 20 , Dewi Puspitasari 9 , M. Syukur Wahyu Putra 21 , Abdi Rahmat 22 , Harri Ramadani 23 , Jim Sammy 24 , Dedi Siswanto 25 , Muhammad Syamsuri 26 , Noviar Andayani 6 , 27 , Huanhuan Wu 28 , Jessie Anne Wells 2 , Kerrie Mengersen 28
11 November 2011
Human-orangutan conflict and hunting are thought to pose a serious threat to orangutan existence in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. No data existed prior to the present study to substantiate these threats. We investigated the rates, spatial distribution and causes of conflict and hunting through an interview-based survey in the orangutan's range in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Between April 2008 and September 2009, we interviewed 6983 respondents in 687 villages to obtain socio-economic information, assess knowledge of local wildlife in general and orangutan encounters specifically, and to query respondents about their knowledge on orangutan conflicts and killing, and relevant laws. This survey revealed estimated killing rates of between 750 and 1800 animals killed in the last year, and between 1950 and 3100 animals killed per year on average within the lifetime of the survey respondents. These killing rates are higher than previously thought and are high enough to pose a serious threat to the continued existence of orangutans in Kalimantan. Importantly, the study contributes to our understanding of the spatial variation in threats, and the underlying causes of those threats, which can be used to facilitate the development of targeted conservation management.