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      Quantifying Killing of Orangutans and Human-Orangutan Conflict in Kalimantan, Indonesia

      1 , 2 , 3 , * , 4 , 5 , 4 , 6 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 6 , 9 , 6 , 4 , 6 , 6 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 8 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 9 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 6 , 27 , 28 , 2 , 28

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          Human-orangutan conflict and hunting are thought to pose a serious threat to orangutan existence in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. No data existed prior to the present study to substantiate these threats. We investigated the rates, spatial distribution and causes of conflict and hunting through an interview-based survey in the orangutan's range in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Between April 2008 and September 2009, we interviewed 6983 respondents in 687 villages to obtain socio-economic information, assess knowledge of local wildlife in general and orangutan encounters specifically, and to query respondents about their knowledge on orangutan conflicts and killing, and relevant laws. This survey revealed estimated killing rates of between 750 and 1800 animals killed in the last year, and between 1950 and 3100 animals killed per year on average within the lifetime of the survey respondents. These killing rates are higher than previously thought and are high enough to pose a serious threat to the continued existence of orangutans in Kalimantan. Importantly, the study contributes to our understanding of the spatial variation in threats, and the underlying causes of those threats, which can be used to facilitate the development of targeted conservation management.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Complexities of conflict: the importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving human-wildlife conflict

           A. J. Dickman (2010)
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            Raiders of the Lost Bark: Orangutan Foraging Strategies in a Degraded Landscape

            Deforestation is rapidly transforming primary forests across the tropics into human-dominated landscapes. Consequently, conservationists need to understand how different taxa respond and adapt to these changes in order to develop appropriate management strategies. Our two year study seeks to determine how wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) adapt to living in an isolated agroforest landscape by investigating the sex of crop-raiders related to population demographics, and their temporal variations in feeding behaviour and dietary composition. From focal animal sampling we found that nine identified females raided cultivated fruits more than the four males. Seasonal adaptations were shown through orangutan feeding habits that shifted from being predominantly fruit-based (56% of the total feeding time, then 22% on bark) to the fallback food of bark (44%, then 35% on fruits), when key cultivated resources such as jackfruit (Artocarpus integer), were unavailable. Cultivated fruits were mostly consumed in the afternoon and evening, when farmers had returned home. The finding that females take greater crop-raiding risks than males differs from previous human-primate conflict studies, probably because of the low risks associated (as farmers rarely retaliated) and low intraspecific competition between males. Thus, the behavioral ecology of orangutans living in this human-dominated landscape differs markedly from that in primary forest, where orangutans have a strictly wild food diet, even where primary rainforests directly borders farmland. The importance of wild food availability was clearly illustrated in this study with 21% of the total orangutan feeding time being allocated to feeding on cultivated fruits. As forests are increasingly converted to cultivation, humans and orangutans are predicted to come into conflict more frequently. This study reveals orangutan adaptations for coexisting with humans, e.g. changes in temporal foraging patterns, which should be used for guiding the development of specific human-wildlife conflict mitigation strategies to lessen future crop-raiding and conflicts.
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              Unexpected Ecological Resilience in Bornean Orangutans and Implications for Pulp and Paper Plantation Management

              Ecological studies of orangutans have almost exclusively focused on populations living in primary or selectively logged rainforest. The response of orangutans to severe habitat degradation remains therefore poorly understood. Most experts assume that viable populations cannot survive outside undisturbed or slightly disturbed forests. This is a concern because nearly 75% of all orangutans live outside protected areas, where degradation of natural forests is likely to occur, or where these are replaced by planted forests. To improve our understanding of orangutan survival in highly altered forest habitats, we conducted population density surveys in two pulp and paper plantation concessions in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. These plantations consist of areas planted with fast-growing exotics intermixed with stands of highly degraded forests and scrublands. Our rapid surveys indicate unexpectedly high orangutan densities in plantation landscapes dominated by Acacia spp., although it remains unclear whether such landscapes can maintain long-term viable populations. These findings indicate the need to better understand how plantation-dominated landscapes can potentially be incorporated into orangutan conservation planning. Although we emphasize that plantations have less value for overall biodiversity conservation than natural forests, they could potentially boost the chances of orangutan survival. Our findings are based on a relatively short study and various methodological issues need to be addressed, but they suggest that orangutans may be more ecologically flexible than previously thought.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                11 November 2011
                : 6
                : 11
                [1 ]People and Nature Consulting International, Jakarta, Indonesia
                [2 ]School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
                [3 ]School of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
                [4 ]The Nature Conservancy – Indonesia Forest Program, Jakarta, and Bogor, Indonesia
                [5 ]Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia
                [6 ]The Indonesian Association of Primatologists (PERHAPPI), Bogor, Indonesia
                [7 ]Faculty of Biology, Universitas Nasional, Jakarta, Indonesia
                [8 ]Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation, Orangutan Reintroduction Program Central Kalimantan, Palangkaraya, Indonesia
                [9 ]World Wide Fund for Nature Indonesia, Pontianak, Indonesia
                [10 ]Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Project, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia
                [11 ]Borneo Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation Institute (BEBSiC), Samarinda, Indonesia
                [12 ]Friends of the National Park Foundation (FNFP), Kumai, Indonesia
                [13 ]People Resources and Conservation Foundation (PRCF), Pontianak, Indonesia
                [14 ]SuaR Institute, Nanga Pinoh, Indonesia
                [15 ]BIOMA Foundation, Samarinda, Indonesia
                [16 ]Gunung Palung Orangutan Conservation Program, Ketapang, Indonesia
                [17 ]Mitra Lingkungan Hidup KalTeng, Palangkaraya, Indonesia
                [18 ]Orangutan Foundation International, Pangkalanbun, Indonesia
                [19 ]Yayasan Dian Tama, Pontianak, Indonesia
                [20 ]Simpur Hutan, Pontianak, Indonesia
                [21 ]Yayasan Titian, Pontianak, Indonesia
                [22 ]Yayasan Perhimpunan TeROPONG, Palangkaraya, Indonesia
                [23 ]Sylva Indonesia PC.UNTAN, Pontianak, Indonesia
                [24 ]Yayasan Riak Bumi, Pontianak, Indonesia
                [25 ]Yayasan Cakrawala Indonesia, Palangkaraya, Indonesia
                [26 ]Forum Komunikasi Kader Konservasi Indonesia (FK3I) Kalbar, Pontianak, Indonesia
                [27 ]Wildlife Conservation Society, Bogor, Indonesia
                [28 ]School of Mathematical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
                Zoological Society of London, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: KM SSUA AN EM. Performed the experiments: DB YH KM SSUA AN AT DPrasetyo NN LC MA FA INGA DA AD EE PG TPI KK CM CWPP YP DPuspitasari MSWP AR HR JS DS MS NA HW JAW EM. Analyzed the data: DB YH KM HW JAW EM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: YH KM HW JAW EM. Wrote the paper: DB YH KM EM.

                Meijaard et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 10
                Research Article
                Crop Management
                Conservation Science
                Spatial and Landscape Ecology
                Species Extinction
                Terrestrial Ecology
                Population Biology
                Population Modeling
                Social and Behavioral Sciences
                Cultural Anthropology
                Ethnic Groups
                Geographic and National Differences
                Biological Anthropology
                Social Anthropology
                Social Research



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