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Great Challenges in Pediatrics

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Frontiers in Pediatrics

Frontiers Media S.A.

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      Non-technical skills training to enhance patient safety: a systematic review.

      Many quality improvement education programmes have been introduced over the last decade with the purpose of enhancing patient safety. The importance of non-technical skills training is becoming increasingly prominent, but the extent to which educational interventions have been used and the theoretical underpinnings of such interventions remain unclear. These issues were investigated through a systematic review of the literature. Any studies involving an educational intervention to improve non-technical skills amongst undergraduate or postgraduate staff in an acute health care environment were considered. A standardised search of online databases was carried out independently by two authors and consensus reached on the inclusion of studies. Data extraction and multimodal quality assessment were completed independently, followed by a content analysis of interventions and the extraction of key themes. A total of 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Measured outcomes were variable, as was the strength of conclusions. Theoretical underpinning of interventions was not described in any studies. Content analysis revealed reasonable consistency with the emergence of five key themes: error; communication; teamwork and leadership; systems, and situational awareness. Teaching was often multidisciplinary and methods used included simulation and role-play exercises, and observation. The methodological quality of published studies is reasonable, although the reporting of specific interventions is poor. Although a recognised model to support the design of patient safety education is lacking, a number of theories have been applied to guide educators in future instructional design. Further published work should clearly describe interventions and their theoretical underpinnings, and should aim to further explore which specific aspects of interventions are effective and why. Such research should also try to assess whether such interventions can impact patient outcomes. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
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        The differential impact of delivery hospital on the outcomes of premature infants.

        Because greater percentages of women deliver at hospitals without high-level NICUs, there is little information on the effect of delivery hospital on the outcomes of premature infants in the past 2 decades, or how these effects differ across states with different perinatal regionalization systems. A retrospective population-based cohort study was constructed of all hospital-based deliveries in Pennsylvania and California between 1995 and 2005 and Missouri between 1995 and 2003 with a gestational age between 23 and 37 weeks (N = 1328132). The effect of delivery at a high-level NICU on in-hospital death and 5 complications of premature birth was calculated by using an instrumental variables approach to control for measured and unmeasured differences between hospitals. Infants who were delivered at a high-level NICU had significantly fewer in-hospital deaths in Pennsylvania (7.8 fewer deaths/1000 deliveries, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.1-11.5), California (2.7 fewer deaths/1000 deliveries, 95% CI 0.9-4.5), and Missouri (12.6 fewer deaths/1000 deliveries, 95% CI 2.6-22.6). Deliveries at high-level NICUs had similar rates of most complications, with the exception of lower bronchopulmonary dysplasia rates at Missouri high-level NICUs (9.5 fewer cases/1000 deliveries, 95% CI 0.7-18.4) and higher infection rates at high-level NICUs in Pennsylvania and California. The association between delivery hospital, in-hospital mortality, and complications differed across the 3 states. There is benefit to neonatal outcomes when high-risk infants are delivered at high-level NICUs that is larger than previously reported, although the effects differ between states, which may be attributable to different methods of regionalization.
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          Influence of stress in parents on child obesity and related behaviors.

          To assess associations of the number of parent stressors and parent-perceived stress with obesity and related behaviors in their children. This cross-sectional analysis used data from the 2006 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey in which 2119 parents/caregivers answered questions about themselves and their children (ages 3-17 years). Survey data were used to assess the main exposure variables: the number of stressors (measured using a stressor index) and parent-perceived stress (the response to a general stress question); child covariates (age, race/ethnicity, health quality, and gender); adult covariates (education, BMI, gender, poor sleep quality) and study outcomes (child obesity, fast-food consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity). To account for developmental differences, analyses were also stratified by age group (3-5, 6-8, 9-12, and 13-17 years). Analyses used multiple logistic regression, with results expressed as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The number of parent stressors was related to child obesity in unadjusted (1.12, 1.03-1.22, P = .007) and adjusted models (1.12, 1.03-1.23, P = .010). Parent-perceived stress was related to fast-food consumption in unadjusted (1.07, 1.03-1.10, P < .001) and adjusted (1.06, 1.02-1.10, P < .001) models. The number of parent stressors was directly related to child obesity. Parent-perceived stress was directly related to child fast-food consumption, an important behavioral indicator of obesity risk. Clinical care models and future research that address child obesity should explore the potential benefits of addressing parent stressors and parent-perceived stress.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1King Fahad Medical City, Cardiovascular Surgery/Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
            Author notes

            Reviewed by: John Steven Torday, University of California Los Angeles, USA; Diana Mathioudakis, Knappschaftsklinikum Saar Krankenhaus Sulzbach, Germany

            Journal
            Front Pediatr
            Front Pediatr
            Front. Pediatr.
            Frontiers in Pediatrics
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            2296-2360
            07 March 2013
            2013
            : 1
            3860869
            10.3389/fped.2013.00005
            Copyright © 2013 Corno.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 26, Pages: 3, Words: 2704
            Categories
            Pediatrics
            Field Grand Challenge

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