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      Migration and Women Left Behind: Challenges and Constraints

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      Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention

      Journal of Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention

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          Abstract

          Migration is the phenomenon that is widely recognized and practiced for various reasons. The migration of the head of the family in pursuit of work often gives rise to problems in the family. The stress and strain that resulted from the husband's absence cause many women to become ill or to leave their homes. Families in Pakistan are experiencing this phenomenon which is caused by the absence of male members of the adult figures. This study aims to explore the challenges faced by left behind women. For this purpose the Qualitative Method was adopted to get in-depth insights and broader views of the topic. Semi-structured interviews also were taken. The data was gathered through Purposive sampling techniques from the metropolitan areas of Quetta City. This study explores that left behind women and families face numbers of challenges at different levels. They face loneliness, overwork, insecurity, sadness, stress; innumerable frustrations in social issues. Government should provide more technical job opportunities to the people to stop this chain of migration.

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          Forage sorghum-legumes intercropping: effect on growth, yields, nutritional quality and economic returns

          ABSTRACT Cereal-legumes intercropping is among the most economical and effective agronomic strategies to boost forage biomass production, nutritional quality and monetary returns. This review synthesizes the research findings on how intercropping affects productivity, quality, competitiveness and economic viability of sorghum-legumes mixed, row and strip intercropping systems under varied pedo-climatic conditions. Though component crops show yield reductions in row (additive and row-replacement series), mixed (seed blended crops) and strip intercropping systems, in general overall productivity per unit land area increases to a great extent. The significantly higher resource capturing with better utilization efficacy by intercrops in temporal and spatial dimensions helps explain their greater productivity. In addition, forage intercrops result in improved nutritional quality as legumes contain protein in double quantity than cereals. Cereal-legumes intercropping systems yield higher quantities of lush green forage with improved quality traits, which ultimately increase monetary benefits. Furthermore, legumes inclusion as an intercrop with cereals has the potential to serve as a nitrogen-saving strategy due to the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) process. Moreover, cereal-legume intercropping systems are effective in reducing weed infestations and soil erosion by providing extended soil cover, as well as in increasing water use efficiency and improving soil fertility. However, despite a significant increase in overall productivity, component crops suffer yield losses in intercropping systems owing to competition for the finite divisible pool of growth resources. Thus, there is a dire need to optimize spatial and temporal arrangements in sorghum-legumes intercropping systems to achieve maximum productivity and economic returns.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention
            cswhi
            Journal of Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention
            2222386X
            20769741
            December 20 2018
            December 16 2018
            December 20 2018
            December 16 2018
            : 9
            : 4
            : 30-35
            Article
            10.22359/cswhi_9_4_05
            © 2018

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Psychology, Social & Behavioral Sciences

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