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The hallmarks of cancer : A long non-coding RNA point of view

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      Abstract

      With the advent of next generation sequencing methods and progress in transcriptome analysis, it became obvious that the human genome contains much more than just protein-coding genes. In fact, up to 70% of our genome is transcribed into RNA that does not serve as templates for proteins. In this review, we focus on the emerging roles of these long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the field of tumor biology. Long ncRNAs were found to be deregulated in several human cancers and show tissue-specific expression. Functional studies revealed a broad spectrum of mechanisms applied by lncRNAs such as HOTAIR, MALAT1, ANRIL or lincRNA-p21 to fulfill their functions. Here, we link the cellular processes influenced by long ncRNAs to the hallmarks of cancer and therefore provide an ncRNA point-of-view on tumor biology. This should stimulate new research directions and therapeutic options considering long ncRNAs as novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets.

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      Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation

      The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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        Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008.

        Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 cancers in 2008 have been prepared for 182 countries as part of the GLOBOCAN series published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article, we present the results for 20 world regions, summarizing the global patterns for the eight most common cancers. Overall, an estimated 12.7 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur in 2008, with 56% of new cancer cases and 63% of the cancer deaths occurring in the less developed regions of the world. The most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide are lung (1.61 million, 12.7% of the total), breast (1.38 million, 10.9%) and colorectal cancers (1.23 million, 9.7%). The most common causes of cancer death are lung cancer (1.38 million, 18.2% of the total), stomach cancer (738,000 deaths, 9.7%) and liver cancer (696,000 deaths, 9.2%). Cancer is neither rare anywhere in the world, nor mainly confined to high-resource countries. Striking differences in the patterns of cancer from region to region are observed. Copyright © 2010 UICC.
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          Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome.

          The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Helmholtz-University-Group “Molecular RNA Biology & Cancer”; German Cancer Research Center DKFZ; Heidelberg, Germany
            [2 ]Institute of Pathology; University of Heidelberg; Heidelberg, Germany
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence to: Sven Diederichs, Email: s.diederichs@ 123456dkfz.de
            Journal
            RNA Biol
            RNA Biol
            RNA
            RNA Biology
            Landes Bioscience
            1547-6286
            1555-8584
            01 June 2012
            01 June 2012
            : 9
            : 6
            : 703-719
            22664915
            3495743
            2011RNABIOL0186R 20481
            10.4161/rna.20481
            Copyright © 2012 Landes Bioscience

            This is an open-access article licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. The article may be redistributed, reproduced, and reused for non-commercial purposes, provided the original source is properly cited.

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