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      Biodiversity change is uncoupled from species richness trends: Consequences for conservation and monitoring

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          Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness

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            Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas.

            Estuarine and coastal transformation is as old as civilization yet has dramatically accelerated over the past 150 to 300 years. Reconstructed time lines, causes, and consequences of change in 12 once diverse and productive estuaries and coastal seas worldwide show similar patterns: Human impacts have depleted >90% of formerly important species, destroyed >65% of seagrass and wetland habitat, degraded water quality, and accelerated species invasions. Twentieth-century conservation efforts achieved partial recovery of upper trophic levels but have so far failed to restore former ecosystem structure and function. Our results provide detailed historical baselines and quantitative targets for ecosystem-based management and marine conservation.
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              Conserving biodiversity under climate change: the rear edge matters.

              Modern climate change is producing poleward range shifts of numerous taxa, communities and ecosystems worldwide. The response of species to changing environments is likely to be determined largely by population responses at range margins. In contrast to the expanding edge, the low-latitude limit (rear edge) of species ranges remains understudied, and the critical importance of rear edge populations as long-term stores of species' genetic diversity and foci of speciation has been little acknowledged. We review recent findings from the fossil record, phylogeography and ecology to illustrate that rear edge populations are often disproportionately important for the survival and evolution of biota. Their ecological features, dynamics and conservation requirements differ from those of populations in other parts of the range, and some commonly recommended conservation practices might therefore be of little use or even counterproductive for rear edge populations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Applied Ecology
                J Appl Ecol
                Wiley-Blackwell
                00218901
                January 2018
                January 01 2018
                : 55
                : 1
                : 169-184
                Article
                10.1111/1365-2664.12959
                © 2018

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