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      Effect of chemical, microwave irradiation, steam autoclave, ultraviolet light radiation, ozone and electrolyzed oxidizing water disinfection on properties of impression materials: A systematic review and meta-analysis study

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          The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis study was to identify the different disinfection methods and materials and the existing evidence on their effect on properties of the different impression materials.

          Material and methods

          An electronic search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases was performed to retrieve related English-language articles published between January 2000 and July 2019. Available studies with search terms such as: Impression disinfection, disinfection method, impression dimensional stability and impression wettability were used. The selected articles were reviewed by screening their titles and abstracts and full text. Finally, a total of 70 articles were considered relevant and were included in this study.


          Extensive studies were conducted to determine the effect of the different disinfection methods and materials on the properties of the different impression materials such as dimensional stability, wettability and surface roughness. While some studies reported significant changes in the properties of the impression materials, others reported either no changes or minor insignificant effects.


          Some studies reported significant changes in the properties of the impression materials as a result of using different disinfection methods, whereas others reported either minor insignificant or no changes. Although the findings of the studies were controversial, care should be taken to avoid distortion of impressions and loss of their surface details that can adversely affect the fitting accuracy of the restorations. Therefore, better designed and standardized studies are needed to evaluate the effect of different commonly used disinfectants on properties of impression materials. Moreover, manufacturers should be encouraged to recommend specific disinfection methods and materials for disinfecting the impression materials to ensure their optimal accuracy.

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          Most cited references 69

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          The application of ozone in dentistry: a systematic review of literature.

          (1) To systematically review the clinical application and remineralization potentials of ozone in dentistry; (2) To summarize the available in vitro applications of ozone in dentistry. Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. (up to April 2007). In vitro or in vivo English language publications, original studies, and reviews were included. Conference papers, abstracts, and posters were excluded. In vitro: Good evidence of ozone biocompatibility with human oral epithelial cells, gingival fibroblast, and periodontal cells; Conflicting evidence of antimicrobial efficacy of ozone but some evidence that ozone is effective in removing the microorganisms from dental unit water lines, the oral cavity, and dentures; Conflicting evidence for the application of ozone in endodontics; Insufficient evidence for the application of ozone in oral surgery and implantology; Good evidence of the prophylactic application of ozone in restorative dentistry prior to etching and the placement of dental sealants and restorations. In vivo: Despite the promising in vitro evidence, the clinical application of ozone in dentistry (so far in management of dental and root caries) has not achieved a strong level of efficacy and cost-effectiveness. While laboratory studies suggest a promising potential of ozone in dentistry, this has not been fully realised in clinical studies to date. More well designed and conducted double-blind randomised clinical trials with adequate sample size, limited or no loss to follow up, and carefully standardised methods of measurement and analyses are needed to evaluate the possible use of ozone as a treatment modality in dentistry.
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            Disinfection procedures: their effect on the dimensional accuracy and surface quality of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials and gypsum casts.

            This study primarily investigated the effect of disinfection procedures (Perform and sodium hypochlorite) on the dimensional accuracy and surface quality of four irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials and the resultant gypsum casts. The antibacterial efficacy of the procedures was also studied. Dimensional accuracy was determined from the mean percentage deviation of six measurements taken from casts made from disinfected impressions compared with corresponding measurements from the master model and controls. Statistical analysis of data was determined by analysis of variance. Surface quality was determined using a stainless steel test block in accordance with ISO 1563. The dimensional accuracy of the impression materials tested were of a comparable standard following disinfection. The surface quality of casts taken from Blueprint Cremix impressions were unaffected by the disinfection procedures. The remaining impression materials studied showed greater surface deterioration on casts following disinfection with sodium hypochlorite than immersion in Perform. All disinfection procedures selected proved appropriate for antibacterial purposes. Individual analysis of impression materials is required to determine their suitability to a given disinfection protocol.
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              Antimicrobial effect of 4 disinfectants on alginate, polyether, and polyvinyl siloxane impression materials.

              Dental impressions often carry microorganisms that may cause cross infection from patients to dental staff. The aim of the current study was to determine the effectiveness of 4 different disinfectant solutions on 3 commonly used impression materials--alginate, polyether, and polyvinyl siloxane--to establish a protocol for disinfection of these impression materials after clinical exposure and prior to handling in the dental laboratory. A total of 45 impressions were taken from the maxillary dentate arches of 15 dental staff participants at the Department of Dentistry, Prince Rashid Hospital, Irbid, Jordan. For each participant, 3 successive impressions were recorded in the different impression materials. For each impression, 6 specimens were dissected from 6 different locations and exposed to 6 different regimens: 1 was left untreated, 1 was immersed in sterile water for 10 minutes to serve as a control, and the remaining 4 specimens were exposed to 4 different disinfection treatments (Dimenol, Perform-ID, MD 520, and Haz-tabs). Serial dilutions of the suspension were carried out and counted by the Miles-Misra technique (inoculation on Columbia blood agar for quantification). The dilutions were aerobically incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. The disinfectants were able to completely eliminate microorganisms carried by the impressions. For those undisinfected specimens, the results showed that untreated alginate impressions appear to carry more microorganisms (P < .05) than the other 2 rubber impression materials used in the study. For those specimens immersed in sterile water for 10 minutes (control group), the number of microorganisms eliminated was increased from 62% to 90% compared to those left untreated. Impression materials may act as a vehicle for the transfer of microorganisms from the patient's mouth to dental personnel. Impressions should be disinfected to eliminate the risk of cross contamination.

                Author and article information

                Saudi Dent J
                Saudi Dent J
                The Saudi Dental Journal
                23 December 2019
                May 2020
                23 December 2019
                : 32
                : 4
                : 161-170
                Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                [* ]Address: P.O. Box 102247, Riyadh 11675, Saudi Arabia. szain@ 123456ksu.edu.sa
                © 2019 The Author

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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