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      Monoclonal gammopathy associated membranous glomerulonephritis: A rare entity

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          Abstract

          A 40-year-old male presented with nephrotic syndrome. Light microscopic analysis of the renal biopsy showed thickening of the glomerular capillary wall. Immunofluorescence examination revealed granular deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) G3-kappa and complement C3 along the glomerular basement membrane. Electron microscopy showed subepithelial electron dense deposits, thus confirming membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) with monoclonal gammopathy. MGN with monoclonal gammopathy is an extremely rare but distinctive entity. This patient was treated with a combination of bortezomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone and showed partial remission of his nephrotic state and dysproteinemia.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Renal monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease: the disease spectrum.

          This study reports the clinicopathologic findings and outcome in 34 patients with renal monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD), which included 23 light-chain DD (LCDD), 5 light- and heavy-chain DD (LHCDD), and 6 heavy-chain DD (HCDD). A total of 23 patients had pure MIDD, whereas 11 patients had LCDD with coexistent myeloma cast nephropathy (LCDD & MCN). Renal biopsy diagnosis preceded clinical evidence of dysproteinemia in 68% of all cases. By immunofluorescence, the composition of deposits included 11kappa/1lambda (LCDD), 3IgGkappa/2IgGlambda (LHCDD), 5gamma/1alpha (HCDD), and 10kappa/1lambda (LCDD & MCN). Patients with pure MIDD presented with mean serum creatinine of 4.2 mg/dl, nephrotic proteinuria, and hypertension. Cases of HCDD were associated with a CH1 deletion and frequently had hypocomplementemia and a positive hepatitis C virus antibody but negative hepatitis C virus PCR. LCDD & MCN is a morphologically and clinically distinct entity from pure MIDD, presenting with higher creatinine (mean, 7.8 mg/dl; P = 0.01), greater dialysis dependence (64 versus 26%; P = 0.053), subnephrotic proteinuria, and less nodular glomerulopathy (18 versus 100%; P < 0.0001). Multiple myeloma was more frequently diagnosed in LCDD & MCN than in pure MIDD (91 versus 31%; P = 0.025). Renal and patient survivals were significantly worse in patients with LCDD & MCN (mean, 4 and 22 mo, respectively), compared with patients with pure MIDD (mean, 22 and 54 mo). Chemotherapy stabilized or improved renal function in 10 of 15 patients (67%) with pure MIDD who presented with creatinine of <5.0 mg/dl, emphasizing the importance of early detection. On multivariate analysis, initial creatinine was the only predictor of renal and patient survival in pure MIDD, underscoring the prognostic significance of the renal involvement.
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            Patterns of noncryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis with monoclonal Ig deposits: correlation with IgG subclass and response to rituximab.

            Several different entities have recently been described among glomerular diseases associated with monoclonal IgG deposits. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of the different pathologic subtypes of IgG-associated glomerulopathy and to evaluate the IgG isotype involved in these diseases.
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              Recurrent membranous nephropathy in an allograft caused by IgG3κ targeting the PLA2 receptor.

              Up to 80% of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy have non-complement-fixing IgG4 autoantibodies to the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R). Membranous nephropathy recurs in approximately 40% of patients after kidney transplantation, but the mechanism is unknown. Here, we describe a patient with recurrent membranous nephropathy 13 days after kidney transplantation whose graft biopsy specimen showed granular staining for C3, C5b-9, C1q, and IgG3κ; electron microscopy revealed subepithelial nonorganized deposits. A search for hematologic disorders was negative. Retrospective evaluation of a biopsy sample from the native kidney revealed a similar pattern: monotypic IgG3κ deposits together with C3, C1q, and C5b-9. Glomerular deposits contained PLA2R in both the graft and the native kidney, suggesting that the recurrence was the result of circulating anti-PLA2R antibodies binding to PLA2R antigen expressed on donor podocytes. Confocal analysis of anti-PLA2R and antihuman IgG3 showed co-localization, and the patient had IgG3κ-restricted circulating anti-PLA2R antibodies. Treatment with rituximab stabilized both proteinuria and serum creatinine, and circulating anti-PLA2R became undetectable. In summary, this case of recurrent membranous nephropathy in a graft suggests that circulating monoclonal anti-PLA2R IgG3κ caused the disease and activated complement by the classic pathway.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Nephrol
                Indian J Nephrol
                IJN
                Indian Journal of Nephrology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0971-4065
                1998-3662
                Jan-Feb 2015
                : 25
                : 1
                : 50-53
                Affiliations
                Department of Histopathology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
                [1 ]Department of Nephrology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Ritambhra Nada, Department of Histopathology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. E-mail: ritamduseja@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                IJN-25-50
                10.4103/0971-4065.135353
                4323913
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Nephrology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Nephrology

                immunoglobulin, monoclonal gammopathy, membranous glomerulonephritis

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