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      A novel PDCD10 gene mutation in cerebral cavernous malformations: a case report and review of the literature

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          Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are one of the most common types of vascular malformation, which are featured enlarged and irregular small blood vessels. The cavernous cavities are merely composed of a single layer of endothelial cells and lack other support tissues, such as elastic fibers and smooth muscle, which make them elastic. CCMs may develop in sporadic or familial forms with autosomal dominant inheritance. Mutations have been identified in three genes: KRIT1, MGC4607, and PDCD10. Here, we report a typical case of CCMs in a 44-year-old woman associated with a novel mutation in PDCD10 gene. The patient, diagnosed with CCMs, has been suffering from headache for several months. Analyses of the Whole Exome Sequencing revealed a novel disease-associated mutation in the already known disease-associated PDCD10 gene. This mutation consists a nucleotide deletion (c.212delG) within the exon 4, resulting in premature protein termination (p.S71Tfs*18). This novel mutation significantly enriches the spectrum of mutations responsible for CCMs, providing a new evidence for further clarifying the genotype–phenotype correlations in CCMs patients.

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          The natural history of familial cavernous malformations: results of an ongoing study.

          Cavernous malformations are congenital abnormalities of the cerebral vessels that affect 0.5% to 0.7% of the population. They occur in two forms: a sporadic form characterized by isolated lesions, and a familial form characterized by multiple lesions with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The management of patients with cavernous malformations, particularly those with the familial form of the disease, remains a challenge because little is known regarding the natural history. The authors report the results of an ongoing study in which six families afflicted by familial cavernous malformations have been prospectively followed with serial interviews, physical examinations, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 6- to 12-month intervals. A total of 59 members of these six families were screened for protocol enrollment; 31 (53%) had MR evidence of familial cavernous malformations. Nineteen (61%) of these 31 patients were symptomatic, with seizures in 12 (39%), recurrent headaches in 16 (52%), focal sensory/motor deficits in three (10%), and visual field deficits in two (6%). Twenty-one of these 31 patients underwent at least two serial clinical and MR imaging examinations. A total of 128 individual cavernous malformations (mean 6.5 +/- 3.8 lesions/patient) were identified and followed radiographically. During a mean follow-up period of 2.2 years (range 1 to 5.5 years), serial MR images demonstrated 17 new lesions in six (29%) of the 21 patients; 13 lesions (10%) showed changes in signal characteristics, and five lesions (3.9%) changed significantly in size. The incidence of symptomatic hemorrhage was 1.1% per lesion per year. The results of this study demonstrate that the familial form of cavernous malformations is a dynamic disease; serial MR images revealed changes in the number, size, and imaging characteristics of lesions consistent with acute or resolving hemorrhage. It is believed that the de novo development of new lesions in this disease has not been previously reported. These findings suggest that patients with familial cavernous malformations require careful follow-up monitoring, and that significant changes in neurological symptoms warrant repeat MR imaging. Surgery should be considered only for lesions that produce repetitive or progressive symptoms. Prophylactic resection of asymptomatic lesions does not appear to be indicated.
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            The Cerebral Cavernous Malformation signaling pathway promotes vascular integrity via Rho GTPases

            SUMMARY Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a common vascular dysplasia that affects both systemic and CNS blood vessels. Loss of function mutations in the CCM2 gene cause CCM. Here we show that targeted disruption of Ccm2 in mice results in failed lumen formation and early embryonic death through an endothelial cell autonomous mechanism. We demonstrate that CCM2 regulates endothelial cytoskeletal architecture, cell-cell interactions and lumen formation. Heterozygosity at Ccm2, a genotype equivalent to human CCM, results in impaired endothelial barrier function. Because our biochemical studies indicate that loss of CCM2 results in activation of RHOA GTPase, we rescued the cellular phenotype and barrier function in heterozygous mice using simvastatin, a drug known to inhibit Rho GTPases. These data offer the prospect for pharmacologic treatment of a human vascular dysplasia using a widely available and safe drug.
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              Natural history of the cavernous angioma.

              The incidence and natural history of the cavernous angioma have remained unclear in part because of the difficulty of diagnosing and following this lesion prior to surgical excision. The introduction of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has improved the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosing and following this vascular malformation. Seventy-six lesions with an MR appearance typical of a presumed cavernous angioma were discovered in 66 patients among 14,035 consecutive MR images performed at the Cleveland Clinic between 1984 and 1989. Follow-up studies in 86% of the cases over a mean period of 26 months provided 143 lesion-years of clinical survey of this condition. The most frequent presenting features were seizure, focal neurological deficit, and headache. While most lesions exhibited evidence of occult bleeding on MR imaging, there was overt hemorrhage in seven of the 57 symptomatic patients and only one overt hemorrhage occurred during the follow-up interval. The annualized bleeding rate was 0.7%. Analysis of the hemorrhage group revealed a significantly greater risk of overt hemorrhage in females. Pathological confirmation of cavernous angioma was obtained in all 14 surgical cases. This information assists in rational therapeutic planning and prognosis in patients with MR images showing lesions suggestive of cavernous angioma.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                01 April 2019
                : 12
                : 1127-1132
                [1 ]Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital , Beijing 100034, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yining HuangDepartment of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital , 8 Xishiku Street, Xicheng District, Beijing100034, People’s Republic of ChinaEmail ynhuang@ 123456bjmu.edu.cn
                © 2019 Yu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 48, Pages: 6
                Case Report


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