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      Protective influence of hyaluronic acid on focal adhesion kinase activity in human skin fibroblasts exposed to ethanol

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          Abstract

          Aim

          The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and hyaluronic acid (HA) on cell survival and apoptosis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Regarding the mechanism of ethanol action on human skin fibroblasts, we investigated cell viability and apoptosis, expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and the influence of HA on those processes.

          Materials and methods

          Studies were conducted in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that were treated with 25 mM, 50 mM, and 100 mM ethanol or with ethanol and 500 µg/mL HA. Cell viability was examined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and NC-300 Nucleo-Counter. Imaging of the cells using a fluorescence microscope Pathway 855 was performed to measure FAK expression.

          Results

          Depending on the dosage, ethanol decreased cell viability and activated the process of apoptosis in human skin fibroblasts. HA prevented the negative influence of ethanol on cell viability and prevented apoptosis. The analysis of fluorescence imaging using BD Pathway 855 High-Content Bioimager showed the inhibition of FAK migration to the cell nucleus, depending on the increasing concentration of ethanol.

          Conclusion

          This study proves that downregulation of signaling pathway of FAK is involved in ethanol-induced apoptosis in human skin fibroblasts. The work also indicates a protective influence of HA on FAK activity in human skin fibroblasts exposed to ethanol.

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          Most cited references 27

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          The magic glue hyaluronan and its eraser hyaluronidase: a biological overview.

          Hyaluronan (HA) is a multifunctional high molecular weight polysaccharide found throughout the animal kingdom, especially in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of soft connective tissues. HA is thought to participate in many biological processes, and its level is markedly elevated during embryogenesis, cell migration, wound healing, malignant transformation, and tissue turnover. The enzymes that degrade HA, hyaluronidases (HAases) are expressed both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These enzymes are known to be involved in physiological and pathological processes ranging from fertilization to aging. Hyaluronidase-mediated degradation of HA increases the permeability of connective tissues and decreases the viscosity of body fluids and is also involved in bacterial pathogenesis, the spread of toxins and venoms, acrosomal reaction/ovum fertilization, and cancer progression. Furthermore, these enzymes may promote direct contact between pathogens and the host cell surfaces. Depolymerization of HA also adversely affects the role of ECM and impairs its activity as a reservoir of growth factors, cytokines and various enzymes involved in signal transduction. Inhibition of HA degradation therefore may be crucial in reducing disease progression and spread of venom/toxins and bacterial pathogens. Hyaluronidase inhibitors are potent, ubiquitous regulating agents that are involved in maintaining the balance between the anabolism and catabolism of HA. Hyaluronidase inhibitors could also serve as contraceptives and anti-tumor agents and possibly have antibacterial and anti-venom/toxin activities. Additionally, these molecules can be used as pharmacological tools to study the physiological and pathophysiological role of HA and hyaluronidases.
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            Anticancer therapeutics: targeting macromolecules and nanocarriers to hyaluronan or CD44, a hyaluronan receptor.

            The complex system involved in the synthesis, degradation and binding of the high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan or HA) provides a variety of structures that can be exploited for targeted cancer therapy. In many cancers of epithelial origin there is an upregulation of CD44, a receptor that binds HA. In other cancers, HA in the tumor matrix is overexpressed. Both CD44 on cancer cells and HA in the matrix have been targets for anticancer therapy. Even though CD44 is expressed in normal epithelial cells and HA is part of the matrix of normal tissues, selective targeting to cancer is possible. This is because macromolecular carriers predominantly extravasate into the tumor and not normal tissue; thus CD44-HA targeted carriers administered intravenously localize preferentially into tumors. Anti-CD44 antibodies have been used in patients to deliver radioisotopes or mertansine for treatment of CD44 expressing tumors. In early phase clinical trials, patients with breast or head and neck tumors treated with anti-CD44 conjugates experienced stabilized disease. A dose-limiting toxicity was associated with distribution of the antibody-drug conjugate to the skin, a site in the body with a high level of CD44. HA has been used as a drug carrier and a ligand on liposomes or nanoparticles to target drugs to CD44 overexpressing cells. Drugs can be attached to HA via the carboxylate on the glucuronic acid residue, the hydroxyl on the N-acetylglucosamine or the reducing end which are located on a repeating disaccharide. Drugs delivered in HA-modified liposomes exhibited excellent antitumor activity both in vitro and in murine tumor models. The HA matrix is also a potential target for anticancer therapies. By manipulating the interaction of HA with cell surface receptors, either by degrading it with hyaluronidase or by interfering with CD44-HA interactions using soluble CD44 proteins, tumor progression was blocked. Finally, cytotoxic drugs or prodrug converting enzymes can be attached to the HA matrix to generate a cytotoxic fence around the tumor. This review describes how the complex interplay among cancer biology, the CD44-HA interaction, drug carriers and drug targeting has been used to improve anticancer therapies. As these approaches evolve, they hold forth the prospect of significantly improved targeted anticancer treatments.
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              Caspases - an update.

              Caspases belong to a family of highly conserved aspartate-specific cysteine proteases and are members of the interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme family, present in multicellular organisms. The caspase gene family consists of 15 mammalian members that are grouped into two major sub-families, namely inflammatory caspases and apoptotic caspases. The apoptotic caspases are further subdivided into two sub-groups, initiator caspases and executioner caspases. The caspases form a caspase-cascade system that plays the central role in the induction, transduction and amplification of intracellular apoptotic signals for cell fate determination, regulation of immunity, and cellular proliferation and differentiation. The substrates of apoptotic caspases have been associated with cellular dismantling, while inflammatory caspases mediate the proteolytic activation of inflammatory cytokines. The activation of this delicate caspase-cascade system and its functions are regulated by a variety of regulatory molecules, such as the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), FLICE, calpain, and Ca(2+). Based on the available literature we have reviewed and discussed the members of the caspase family, caspase-cascade system, caspase-regulating molecules and their apoptotic and non-apoptotic functions in cellular life and death. Also recent progress in the molecular structure and physiological role of non-mammalian caspases such as paracaspases, metacaspases and caspase-like-protease family members are included in relation to that of mammalian species.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                06 March 2017
                : 11
                : 669-676
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Esthetic Medicine
                [2 ]Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy
                [3 ]Department of Health Restoration, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Magdalena Donejko, Department of Esthetic Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Białystok, 3 Akademicka Street, 15-267 Białystok, Poland, Email donejko@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                dddt-11-669
                10.2147/DDDT.S125843
                5345991
                28293103
                © 2017 Donejko et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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