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      Language Choices at Home and Their Relationship With Educational Outcomes, With a Special Focus on Children With Origins in Former Yugoslavia and Turkey in Six European Countries

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          Abstract

          Language has been conceptualized as both a measure as well as a predictor of integration among immigrants and their children. However, the relationship between language spoken at home and different educational outcomes remains poorly understood. Many studies indicate that nurturing students' first languages is positively associated with their learning at school. Other research suggests that one of the reasons why children of immigrants tend to perform worse at school is due to speaking a language other than that of instruction at home. In order to shed further light on the role of language choices at home for education, we examine both the correlates of language use at home as well as the relationship between this and reading scores and educational expectations. We differentiate between three language use groups: those who mainly use the language of origin at home, those who only use the language of instruction at home, and those who use both of these. We analyze these relationships using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). In order to examine country differences, we place a special focus on two immigrant-origin groups that are present in significant numbers in a number of European countries: children with origins in Turkey and former Yugoslavia. These two groups have also been identified as being at major educational disadvantage across Europe. Our results suggest that continuing to (mainly) use the language of origin at home is more prevalent among children from socioeconomically more disadvantaged families, but is supported by more socioeconomically advantaged and more diverse school environments. In the majority of countries studied, switching to the language of instruction is associated with higher reading scores but not with higher educational expectations than continuing to speak mainly the language of origin at home. These relationships are to a large extent confounded (or in some cases potentially mediated) by family factors such as socioeconomic status and school-related factors such as school's socioeconomic composition. We conclude by highlighting the role that linguistically responsive pedagogies and a positive school climate can play for the education of all young people but in particular newly-arrived immigrants.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Sociol
                Front Sociol
                Front. Sociol.
                Frontiers in Sociology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2297-7775
                15 June 2022
                2022
                : 7
                : 841847
                Affiliations
                [1] 1INVEST Research Flagship Centre, University of Turku , Turku, Finland
                [2] 2Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Applied Pedagogy, Åbo Akademi University , Turku, Finland
                Author notes

                Edited by: Zerrin Salikutluk, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany

                Reviewed by: Julian Seuring, Leibniz Institute for Educational Trajectories (LG), Germany; Orhan Agirdag, KU Leuven, Belgium

                *Correspondence: Elina Kilpi-Jakonen elina.kilpi-jakonen@ 123456utu.fi

                This article was submitted to Migration and Society, a section of the journal Frontiers in Sociology

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work and share first authorship

                Article
                10.3389/fsoc.2022.841847
                9240635
                3062632a-3261-4dc6-ac59-7dddfc7a812f
                Copyright © 2022 Kilpi-Jakonen and Alisaari.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 22 December 2021
                : 23 May 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 7, Equations: 0, References: 133, Pages: 20, Words: 17912
                Funding
                Funded by: Academy of Finland, doi 10.13039/501100002341;
                Award ID: 316247
                Award ID: 320162
                Categories
                Sociology
                Original Research

                children of immigrants,language maintenance and language shift,reading scores,educational expectations,school climate,school composition

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