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      Semiconductors for organic transistors

      Materials Today
      Elsevier BV

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          High-Resolution Inkjet Printing of All-Polymer Transistor Circuits

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            Liquid-crystalline semiconducting polymers with high charge-carrier mobility.

            Organic semiconductors that can be fabricated by simple processing techniques and possess excellent electrical performance, are key requirements in the progress of organic electronics. Both high semiconductor charge-carrier mobility, optimized through understanding and control of the semiconductor microstructure, and stability of the semiconductor to ambient electrochemical oxidative processes are required. We report on new semiconducting liquid-crystalline thieno[3,2-b ]thiophene polymers, the enhancement in charge-carrier mobility achieved through highly organized morphology from processing in the mesophase, and the effects of exposure to both ambient and low-humidity air on the performance of transistor devices. Relatively large crystalline domain sizes on the length scale of lithographically accessible channel lengths ( approximately 200 nm) were exhibited in thin films, thus offering the potential for fabrication of single-crystal polymer transistors. Good transistor stability under static storage and operation in a low-humidity air environment was demonstrated, with charge-carrier field-effect mobilities of 0.2-0.6 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) achieved under nitrogen.
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              General observation of n-type field-effect behaviour in organic semiconductors.

              Organic semiconductors have been the subject of active research for over a decade now, with applications emerging in light-emitting displays and printable electronic circuits. One characteristic feature of these materials is the strong trapping of electrons but not holes: organic field-effect transistors (FETs) typically show p-type, but not n-type, conduction even with the appropriate low-work-function electrodes, except for a few special high-electron-affinity or low-bandgap organic semiconductors. Here we demonstrate that the use of an appropriate hydroxyl-free gate dielectric--such as a divinyltetramethylsiloxane-bis(benzocyclobutene) derivative (BCB; ref. 6)--can yield n-channel FET conduction in most conjugated polymers. The FET electron mobilities thus obtained reveal that electrons are considerably more mobile in these materials than previously thought. Electron mobilities of the order of 10(-3) to 10(-2) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been measured in a number of polyfluorene copolymers and in a dialkyl-substituted poly(p-phenylenevinylene), all in the unaligned state. We further show that the reason why n-type behaviour has previously been so elusive is the trapping of electrons at the semiconductor-dielectric interface by hydroxyl groups, present in the form of silanols in the case of the commonly used SiO2 dielectric. These findings should therefore open up new opportunities for organic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits, in which both p-type and n-type behaviours are harnessed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Materials Today
                Materials Today
                Elsevier BV
                13697021
                March 2007
                March 2007
                : 10
                : 3
                : 28-37
                Article
                10.1016/S1369-7021(07)70017-2
                3062beba-591f-412e-bcc2-c4d119a9d625
                © 2007

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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