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      Multicausal systems ask for multicausal approaches: A network perspective on subjective well-being in individuals with autism spectrum disorder

      1 , 2 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 2

      Autism

      SAGE Publications

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          Most cited references 26

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          High-dimensional graphs and variable selection with the Lasso

          The pattern of zero entries in the inverse covariance matrix of a multivariate normal distribution corresponds to conditional independence restrictions between variables. Covariance selection aims at estimating those structural zeros from data. We show that neighborhood selection with the Lasso is a computationally attractive alternative to standard covariance selection for sparse high-dimensional graphs. Neighborhood selection estimates the conditional independence restrictions separately for each node in the graph and is hence equivalent to variable selection for Gaussian linear models. We show that the proposed neighborhood selection scheme is consistent for sparse high-dimensional graphs. Consistency hinges on the choice of the penalty parameter. The oracle value for optimal prediction does not lead to a consistent neighborhood estimate. Controlling instead the probability of falsely joining some distinct connectivity components of the graph, consistent estimation for sparse graphs is achieved (with exponential rates), even when the number of variables grows as the number of observations raised to an arbitrary power.
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            Cognitive, language, social and behavioural outcomes in adults with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review of longitudinal follow-up studies in adulthood.

            Although increasing numbers of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are now entering adolescence and adulthood, there is limited research on outcomes post childhood. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted. PsycINFO, PubMed, MedLine and CINAHL were systematically searched using keywords related to ASD and adolescent and adult outcomes. Studies of individuals diagnosed with ASD in childhood and followed up into adulthood were identified and reviewed. Only studies with samples sizes >10, mean age at outcome >16 years and at least one previous assessment in childhood (<16 years) were included. Twenty-five studies meeting criteria were identified. Reported outcomes in adulthood were highly variable across studies. Although social functioning, cognitive ability and language skills remained relatively stable in some studies, others reported deterioration over time. Adaptive functioning tended to improve in most studies. Diagnosis of autism or ASD was generally stable, although severity of autism-related behavioural symptoms was often reported to improve. Childhood IQ and early language ability appeared to be the strongest predictors of later outcome, but few studies examined other early variables associated with adult functioning. Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to methodological challenges in longitudinal outcome research and future research directions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Beyond autism: a baby siblings research consortium study of high-risk children at three years of age.

              First-degree relatives of persons with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk for ASD-related characteristics. As little is known about the early expression of these characteristics, this study characterizes the non-ASD outcomes of 3-year-old high-risk (HR) siblings of children with ASD. Two groups of children without ASD participated: 507 HR siblings and 324 low-risk (LR) control subjects (no known relatives with ASD). Children were enrolled at a mean age of 8 months, and outcomes were assessed at 3 years. Outcome measures were Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) calibrated severity scores, and Mullen Verbal and Non-Verbal Developmental Quotients (DQ). At 3 years, HR siblings without an ASD outcome exhibited higher mean ADOS severity scores and lower verbal and non-verbal DQs than LR controls. HR siblings were over-represented (21% HR versus 7% LR) in latent classes characterized by elevated ADOS severity and/or low to low-average DQs. The remaining HR siblings without ASD outcomes (79%) belonged to classes in which they were not differentially represented with respect to LR siblings. Having removed a previously identified 18.7% of HR siblings with ASD outcomes from all analyses, HR siblings nevertheless exhibited higher mean levels of ASD severity and lower levels of developmental functioning than LR children. However, the latent class membership of four-fifths of the HR siblings was not significantly different from that of LR control subjects. One-fifth of HR siblings belonged to classes characterized by higher ASD severity and/or lower levels of developmental functioning. This empirically derived characterization of an early-emerging pattern of difficulties in a minority of 3-year-old HR siblings suggests the importance of developmental surveillance and early intervention for these children. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Autism
                Autism
                SAGE Publications
                1362-3613
                1461-7005
                August 07 2016
                November 2017
                August 17 2016
                November 2017
                : 21
                : 8
                : 960-971
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Dr. Leo Kannerhuis, The Netherlands
                [2 ]University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [3 ]VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                Article
                10.1177/1362361316660309
                © 2017

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