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      Mapping chromosomal homologies between humans and two langurs (Semnopithecus francoisi and S. phayrei) by chromosome painting.

      Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Chromosomal homologies were established between human and two Chinese langurs (Semnopithecus francoisi, 2n = 44, and S. phayrei, 2n = 44) by chromosome painting with chromosome-specific DNA probes of all human chromosomes except the Y. Both langur species showed identical hybridization patterns in addition to similar G-banding patterns. In total, 23 human chromosome-specific probes detected 30 homologous chromosome segments in a haploid langur genome. Except for human chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 16 and 19 probes, which each gave signals on two non-homologous langur chromosomes respectively, all other probes each hybridized to a single chromosome. The results indicate a high degree of conservation of chromosomal synteny between human and these two Chinese langurs. The human chromosome 2 probe painted the entire euchromatic regions of langur chromosomes 14 and 19. Human chromosome 1 probe hybridized to three regions on langur autosomes, one region on langur chromosome 4 and two regions on langur chromosome 5. Human 19 probe hybridized on the same pattern to one region on chromosome 4 and to two regions on langur chromosome 5, where it alternated with the human chromosome 1 probe. Human 6 and 16 probes both hybridized to one region on each of the two langur autosomes 15 and 18. Only two langur chromosomes (12 and 21) were each labelled by probes specific for two whole human chromosomes (14 and 15 and 21 and 22 respectively). Comparison of the hybridization patterns of human painting probes on these two langurs with the data on other Old World primates suggests that reciprocal and Robertsonian translocations as will as inversions could have occurred since the divergence of human and the langurs from a common ancestor. This comparison also indicates that Asian colobines are karyotypically more closely related to each other that to African colobines.

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