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      Defensive mutualisms: do microbial interactions within hosts drive the evolution of defensive traits?

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      Functional Ecology

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles.

          All plants in natural ecosystems appear to be symbiotic with fungal endophytes. This highly diverse group of fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities through increasing fitness by conferring abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, increasing biomass and decreasing water consumption, or decreasing fitness by altering resource allocation. Despite more than 100 yr of research resulting in thousands of journal articles, the ecological significance of these fungi remains poorly characterized. Historically, two endophytic groups (clavicipitaceous (C) and nonclavicipitaceous (NC)) have been discriminated based on phylogeny and life history traits. Here, we show that NC-endophytes represent three distinct functional groups based on host colonization and transmission, in planta biodiversity and fitness benefits conferred to hosts. Using this framework, we contrast the life histories, interactions with hosts and potential roles in plant ecophysiology of C- and NC-endophytes, and highlight several key questions for future work in endophyte biology.
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            Fungal Endophytes in Stems and Leaves: From Latent Pathogen to Mutualistic Symbiont

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              FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES: A Continuum of Interactions with Host Plants

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Functional Ecology
                Funct Ecol
                Wiley-Blackwell
                02698463
                April 2014
                April 2014
                : 28
                : 2
                : 356-363
                Article
                10.1111/1365-2435.12166
                © 2014
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