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      Cross-genera SSR transferability in cacti revealed by a case study using Cereus (Cereeae, Cactaceae)

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          Abstract

          The study of transferability of simple sequence repeats (SSR) among closely related species is a well-known strategy in population genetics, however transferability among distinct genera is less common. We tested cross-genera SSR amplification in the family Cactaceae using a total of 20 heterologous primers previously developed for the genera Ariocarpus, Echinocactus, Polaskia and Pilosocereus, in four taxa of the genus Cereus: C. fernambucensis subsp. fernambucensis, C. fernambucensis subsp. sericifer, C. jamacaru and C. insularis . Nine microsatellite loci were amplified in Cereus resulting in 35.2% of success in transferability, which is higher than the average rate of 10% reported in the literature for cross-genera transferability in eudicots. The genetic variation in the transferred markers was sufficient to perform standard clustering analysis, indicating each population as a cohesive genetic cluster. Overall, the amount of genetic variation found indicates that the transferred SSR markers might be useful in large-scale population studies within the genus Cereus.

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          Arlequin suite ver 3.5: a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows.

          We present here a new version of the Arlequin program available under three different forms: a Windows graphical version (Winarl35), a console version of Arlequin (arlecore), and a specific console version to compute summary statistics (arlsumstat). The command-line versions run under both Linux and Windows. The main innovations of the new version include enhanced outputs in XML format, the possibility to embed graphics displaying computation results directly into output files, and the implementation of a new method to detect loci under selection from genome scans. Command-line versions are designed to handle large series of files, and arlsumstat can be used to generate summary statistics from simulated data sets within an Approximate Bayesian Computation framework. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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            Phylogenetic Analysis: Models and Estimation Procedures

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              Contemporaneous and recent radiations of the world's major succulent plant lineages.

              The cacti are one of the most celebrated radiations of succulent plants. There has been much speculation about their age, but progress in dating cactus origins has been hindered by the lack of fossil data for cacti or their close relatives. Using a hybrid phylogenomic approach, we estimated that the cactus lineage diverged from its closest relatives ≈35 million years ago (Ma). However, major diversification events in cacti were more recent, with most species-rich clades originating in the late Miocene, ≈10-5 Ma. Diversification rates of several cactus lineages rival other estimates of extremely rapid speciation in plants. Major cactus radiations were contemporaneous with those of South African ice plants and North American agaves, revealing a simultaneous diversification of several of the world's major succulent plant lineages across multiple continents. This short geological time period also harbored the majority of origins of C(4) photosynthesis and the global rise of C(4) grasslands. A global expansion of arid environments during this time could have provided new ecological opportunity for both succulent and C(4) plant syndromes. Alternatively, recent work has identified a substantial decline in atmospheric CO(2) ≈15-8 Ma, which would have strongly favored C(4) evolution and expansion of C(4)-dominated grasslands. Lowered atmospheric CO(2) would also substantially exacerbate plant water stress in marginally arid environments, providing preadapted succulent plants with a sharp advantage in a broader set of ecological conditions and promoting their rapid diversification across the landscape.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genet Mol Biol
                Genet. Mol. Biol
                gmb
                Genetics and Molecular Biology
                Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
                1415-4757
                1678-4685
                21 February 2019
                Jan-Mar 2019
                : 42
                : 1
                : 87-94
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] normalizedUniversidade Federal de São Carlos orgnameUniversidade Federal de São Carlos orgdiv1Departamento de Biologia Sorocaba SP Brazil originalDepartamento de Biologia, Centro de Ciências Humanas e Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil
                [2 ] normalizedUniversidade de São Paulo orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto orgdiv2Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Comparada Ribeirão Preto SP Brazil originalPrograma de Pós-graduação em Biologia Comparada, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
                [3 ] normalizedInstituto Tecnológico Vale orgnameInstituto Tecnológico Vale orgdiv1Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi Belém PA Brazil originalInstituto Tecnológico Vale, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Coord. Botânica, Belém, PA, Brazil
                [4 ] normalizedSingapore Botanic Gardens (National Parks Board) orgnameSingapore Botanic Gardens (National Parks Board) Singapore Republic of Singapore originalSingapore Botanic Gardens (National Parks Board), Singapore, Republic of Singapore
                Author notes
                Send correspondence to Fernando Faria Franco, Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Ciências Humanas e Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rodovia João Leme dos Santos, SP264 Km 110, 18052-780, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil. E-mail: franco@ 123456ufscar.br .
                Article
                10.1590/1678-4685-GMB-2017-0293
                6428128
                30794719
                306bbc84-f878-42a8-a960-e19616362a7a
                Copyright © 2018, Sociedade Brasileira de Genética.

                License information: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (type CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original article is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 53
                Funding
                Funded by: São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) to F.F.F.
                Award ID: (2010/25227-0, 2014/25227-0)
                Categories
                Plant Genetics

                Molecular biology
                cactaceae,cereus,cross-genera,ssr markers,transferability
                Molecular biology
                cactaceae, cereus, cross-genera, ssr markers, transferability

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