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      Effects of K-115 (Ripasudil), a novel ROCK inhibitor, on trabecular meshwork and Schlemm’s canal endothelial cells

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          Abstract

          Ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate (K-115), a specific Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, was the first ophthalmic solution developed for the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension in Japan. Topical administration of K-115 decreased intraocular pressure (IOP) and increased outflow facility in rabbits. This study evaluated the effect of K-115 on monkey trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and Schlemm’s canal endothelial (SCE) cells. K-115 induced retraction and rounding of cell bodies as well as disruption of actin bundles in TM cells. In SCE-cell monolayer permeability studies, K-115 significantly decreased transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increased the transendothelial flux of FITC-dextran. Further, K-115 disrupted cellular localization of ZO-1 expression in SCE-cell monolayers. These results indicate that K-115 decreases IOP by increasing outflow facility in association with the modulation of TM cell behavior and SCE cell permeability in association with disruption of tight junction.

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          ROCK-I and ROCK-II, two isoforms of Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein serine/threonine kinase in mice.

          We recently identified a novel human protein kinase, p160 ROCK, as a putative downstream target of the small GTPase Rho. Using the human ROCK cDNA as a probe, we isolated cDNA of two distinct, highly related sequences from mouse libraries. One encoded a mouse counterpart of human ROCK (ROCK-I), and the other encoded a novel ROCK-related kinase (ROCK-II). Like ROCK/ROCK-I, ROCK-II also bound to GTP-Rho selectively. ROCK-I mRNA was ubiquitously expressed except in the brain and muscle, whereas ROCK-II mRNA was expressed abundantly in the brain, muscle, heart, lung and placenta. These results suggest that at least two ROCK isoforms are present in a single species and play distinct roles in Rho-mediated signalling pathways.
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            Extracellular matrix in the trabecular meshwork.

            The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be important in regulating intraocular pressure (IOP) in both normal and glaucomatous eyes. IOP is regulated primarily by a fluid resistance to aqueous humor outflow. However, neither the exact site nor the identity of the normal resistance to aqueous humor outflow has been established. Whether the site and nature of the increased outflow resistance, which is associated with open-angle glaucoma, is the same or different from the normal resistance is also unclear. The ECMs of the TM beams, juxtacanalicular region (JCT) and Schlemm's canal (SC) inner wall are comprised of fibrillar and non-fibrillar collagens, elastin-containing microfibrils, matricellular and structural organizing proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans. Both basement membranes and stromal ECM are present in the TM beams and JCT region. Cell adhesion proteins, cell surface ECM receptors and associated binding proteins are also present in the beams, JCT and SC inner wall region. The outflow pathway ECM is relatively dynamic, undergoing constant turnover and remodeling. Regulated changes in enzymes responsible for ECM degradation and biosynthetic replacement are observed. IOP homeostasis, triggered by pressure changes or mechanical stretching of the TM, appears to involve ECM turnover. Several cytokines, growth factors and drugs, which affect the outflow resistance, change ECM component expression, mRNA alternative splicing, cellular cytoskeletal organization or all of these. Changes in ECM associated with open-angle glaucoma have been identified.
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              'What controls aqueous humour outflow resistance?'.

              The bulk of aqueous humour outflow resistance is generated in or near the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal in normal eyes, and probably also in glaucomatous eyes. Fluid flow through this region is controlled by the location of the giant vacuoles and pores found in cells of the endothelium of Schlemm's canal, but the flow resistance itself is more likely generated either in the extracellular matrix of the juxtacanalicular connective tissue or the basement membrane of Schlemm's canal. Future studies utilizing in vitro perfusion studies of inner wall endothelial cells may give insights into the process by which vacuoles and pores form in this unique endothelium and why inner wall pore density is greatly reduced in glaucoma.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                19 January 2016
                2016
                : 6
                : 19640
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Tokyo New Drug Research Laboratories, Kowa Co., Ltd. , Tokyo, 189-0022, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University , Kumamoto, 860-8556, Japan
                Author notes
                Article
                srep19640
                10.1038/srep19640
                4725980
                26782355
                306be875-ee60-4e31-abd6-42655ffed7e4
                Copyright © 2016, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 16 July 2015
                : 14 December 2015
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