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      Seasonal Differences in Density But Similar Competitive Impact of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) on Aedes aegypti (L.) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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          Abstract

          Previous studies have shown that the negative effects of density of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti exceed those of Ae. aegypti on Ae. albopictus for population growth, adult size, survivorship, and developmental rate. This competitive superiority has been invoked to explain the displacement of Ae. aegypti by Ae. albopictus in the southeastern USA. In Brazil, these species coexist in many vegetated suburban and rural areas. We investigated a related, but less-well-studied question: do effects of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival occur under field conditions at realistic densities across multiple seasons in Brazil? We conducted additive competition experiments in a vegetated area of Rio de Janeiro where these species coexist. We tested the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti (the focal species, at a fixed density) suffers negative effects on development and survivorship across a gradient of increasing densities of Ae. albopictus (the associate species) in three seasons. The results showed statistically significant effects of both season and larval density on Ae. aegypti survivorship, and significant effects of season on development rate, with no significant season-density interactions. Densities of Aedes larvae in these habitats differed among seasons by a factor of up to 7x. Overall, Spring was the most favorable season for Ae. aegypti survivorship and development. Results showed that under natural conditions the negative competitive effects of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti were expressed primarily as lower survivorship. Coexistence between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in vegetated areas is likely affected by seasonal environmental differences, such as detrital resource levels or egg desiccation, which can influence competition between these species. Interactions between these Aedes are important in Brazil, where both species are well established and widely distributed and vector dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Spread of the tiger: global risk of invasion by the mosquito Aedes albopictus.

          Aedes albopictus, commonly known as the Asian tiger mosquito, is currently the most invasive mosquito in the world. It is of medical importance due to its aggressive daytime human-biting behavior and ability to vector many viruses, including dengue, LaCrosse, and West Nile. Invasions into new areas of its potential range are often initiated through the transportation of eggs via the international trade in used tires. We use a genetic algorithm, Genetic Algorithm for Rule Set Production (GARP), to determine the ecological niche of Ae. albopictus and predict a global ecological risk map for the continued spread of the species. We combine this analysis with risk due to importation of tires from infested countries and their proximity to countries that have already been invaded to develop a list of countries most at risk for future introductions and establishments. Methods used here have potential for predicting risks of future invasions of vectors or pathogens.
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            Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus

            Background Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.
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              Invasions by insect vectors of human disease.

               L. Lounibos (2001)
              Nonindigenous vectors that arrive, establish, and spread in new areas have fomented throughout recorded history epidemics of human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, typhus, and plague. Although some vagile vectors, such as adults of black flies, biting midges, and tsetse flies, have dispersed into new habitats by flight or wind, human-aided transport is responsible for the arrival and spread of most invasive vectors, such as anthropophilic fleas, lice, kissing bugs, and mosquitoes. From the fifteenth century to the present, successive waves of invasion of the vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, the Culex pipiens Complex, and, most recently, Aedes albopictus have been facilitated by worldwide ship transport. Aircraft have been comparatively unimportant for the transport of mosquito invaders. Mosquito species that occupy transportable container habitats, such as water-holding automobile tires, have been especially successful as recent invaders. Propagule pressure, previous success, and adaptations to human habits appear to favor successful invasions by vectors.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratório de Transmissores de Hematozoários – LATHEMA, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                [2 ]Núcleo Operacional Sentinela de Mosquitos Vetores – NOSMOVE, DIRAC – IOC – VPAAPS, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                [3 ]Programa de Computação Científica, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                [4 ]School of Biological Sciences, Behavior, Ecology, Evolution and Systematics Section, Illinois State University, Normal Illinois, United States of America
                [5 ]Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, University of Florida, Vero Beach Florida, United States of America
                Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: DCPC CTC SAJ LPL NAH. Performed the experiments: DCPC CTC TISR GRP NAH. Analyzed the data: DCPC CTC SAJ LPL TISR NAH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DCPC CTC SAJ LPL TISR GRP NAH. Wrote the paper: DCPC CTC SAJ LPL TISR GRP NAH.

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                20 June 2016
                2016
                : 11
                : 6
                PONE-D-15-32040
                10.1371/journal.pone.0157120
                4913923
                27322537

                This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 5, Pages: 15
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000002, National Institutes of Health;
                Award ID: R03TW007446-01A1
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003593, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico;
                Award ID: 407744/2012-6
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Rede Dengue - FIOCRUZ
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
                Award Recipient :
                This research was funded by US National Institutes of Health Fogarty International Center FIRCA grant R03TW007446-01A1 - received by LPL and SAJ, by INCT-EM/CNPq – PAPES V grant 407744/2012-6, Rede Dengue FIOCRUZ and funds from Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil, received by NAH. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Earth Sciences
                Seasons
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Epidemiology
                Disease Vectors
                Insect Vectors
                Mosquitoes
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Mosquitoes
                Earth Sciences
                Seasons
                Summer
                Earth Sciences
                Seasons
                Autumn
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Developmental Biology
                Metamorphosis
                Larvae
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                South America
                Brazil
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Entomology
                Insect Metamorphosis
                Pupae
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Developmental Biology
                Metamorphosis
                Insect Metamorphosis
                Pupae
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Species Colonization
                Invasive Species
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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