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      Serum levels of soluble programmed death protein 1 (sPD-1) and soluble programmed death ligand 1 (sPD-L1) in advanced pancreatic cancer

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          Most cited references 28

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          Is Open Access

          Cancer immunotherapy: the beginning of the end of cancer?

          These are exciting times for cancer immunotherapy. After many years of disappointing results, the tide has finally changed and immunotherapy has become a clinically validated treatment for many cancers. Immunotherapeutic strategies include cancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses, adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated T and natural killer cells, and administration of antibodies or recombinant proteins that either costimulate cells or block the so-called immune checkpoint pathways. The recent success of several immunotherapeutic regimes, such as monoclonal antibody blocking of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), has boosted the development of this treatment modality, with the consequence that new therapeutic targets and schemes which combine various immunological agents are now being described at a breathtaking pace. In this review, we outline some of the main strategies in cancer immunotherapy (cancer vaccines, adoptive cellular immunotherapy, immune checkpoint blockade, and oncolytic viruses) and discuss the progress in the synergistic design of immune-targeting combination therapies.
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            Dynamics of the immune reaction to pancreatic cancer from inception to invasion.

            The dynamics of cancer immunosurveillance remain incompletely understood, hampering efforts to develop immunotherapy of cancer. We evaluated the evolving in vivo immune response to a spontaneous tumor in a genetically defined mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma from the inception of preinvasive disease to invasive cancer. We observed a prominent leukocytic infiltration even around the lowest grade preinvasive lesions, but immunosuppressive cells, including tumor-associated macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and regulatory T cells (Treg), dominated the early response and persisted through invasive cancer. Effector T cells, however, were scarce in preinvasive lesions, found in only a subset of advanced cancers, and showed no evidence of activation. The lack of tumor-infiltrating effector T cells strongly correlated with the presence of intratumoral MDSC with a near mutual exclusion. In vitro, we found that MDSC suppressed T-cell proliferation. Overall, our results show that suppressive cells of the host immune system appear early during pancreatic tumorigenesis, preceding and outweighing antitumor cellular immunity, and likely contribute to disease progression. Thus, in contrast to the hypothesis that an early "elimination phase" of cancer immunosurveillance is eventually overwhelmed by a growing invasive tumor, our findings suggest that productive tumor immunity may be undermined from the start. Efforts to test potent inhibitors of MDSC, tumor-associated macrophages, and Treg, particularly early in the disease represent important next steps for developing novel immunotherapy of cancer.
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              High level of soluble programmed cell death ligand 1 in blood impacts overall survival in aggressive diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma: results from a French multicenter clinical trial.

              The dosage of soluble programmed cell death ligand 1 (sPD-L1) protein in the blood of adults with cancer has never been performed in a prospective patient cohort. We evaluated the clinical impact of sPD-L1 level measured at the time of diagnosis for newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Soluble PD-L1 was measured in the plasma of 288 patients enrolled in a multicenter, randomized phase III trial that compared R-high-dose chemotherapy with R-CHOP. The median follow-up was 41.4 months. A cutoff of 1.52 ng/ml of PD-L1 level was determined and related to overall survival (OS). Patients with elevated sPD-L1 experienced a poorer prognosis with a 3-year OS of 76% versus 89% (P<0.001). Considering clinical characteristics, the multivariate analysis retained this biomarker besides bone marrow involvement and abnormal lymphocyte-monocyte score as independently related to poor outcome. sPD-L1 was detectable in the plasma and not in the serum, found elevated in patients at diagnosis compared with healthy subjects and its level dropped back to normal value after CR. The intention-to-treat analysis showed that elevated sPD-L1 was associated with a poorer prognosis for patients randomized within the R-CHOP arm (P<0.001). Plasma PD-L1 protein is a potent predicting biomarker in DLBCL and may indicate usefulness of alternative therapeutic strategies using PD-1 axis inhibitors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OncoImmunology
                OncoImmunology
                Informa UK Limited
                2162-402X
                March 16 2017
                May 04 2017
                March 31 2017
                May 04 2017
                : 6
                : 5
                : e1310358
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Internal Medicine III and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany
                [2 ] DKTK, German Cancer Consortium, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
                [3 ] Institute of Pathology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany
                [4 ] Institute of Laboratory Medicine, German Heart Centre Munich, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
                [5 ] Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany
                Article
                10.1080/2162402X.2017.1310358
                © 2017

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