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      Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants Translated title: Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco

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          Abstract

          The effects of insect cadavers infected with three isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and one isolate of Steinernema diaprepesi on a population of Meloidogyne incognita in pepper (Capsicum annuum) and summer squash (Cucurbita maxima) were evaluated in greenhouse experiments carried out in Santa Fe (Argentina). Insect cadavers were obtained for the experiments from last instar larvae of Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor that had been infected with entomopathogenic nematodes. Two six-day-old insect cadavers per pot were placed below the soil surface, and the soil was inoculated with 100 second-stage juveniles ofM incognita. Sixty days after inoculation, the following parameters were recorded for each plant: number of leaves; dry weight of aerial parts; numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs; and numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs g-1 of root fresh matter. In pepper, the only variable affected by the infected cadavers with respect to control was the number of eggs in the treatment involving T. molitor cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída. In summer squash, several treatments using infected cadavers resulted in a decrease in the numbers of galls and egg masses. Only the treatment involving G. mellonella cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída proved to be efficient in reducing the number of M. incognita eggs. Our results indicated that the application of insect cadavers infected with the entomopathogenic nematodes studied might reduce M. incognita damage in pepper and summer squash plants.

          Translated abstract

          El efecto de cadáveres de insectos infectados con tres aislados de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y un aislado de Steinernema diaprepesi sobre una población de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento (Capsicum annuum) y zapallito redondo de tronco (Cucurbita maxima) fue evaluado en experiencias de invernadero conducidas en Santa Fe (Argentina). Los cadáveres de insectos necesarios para la experiencia se obtuvieron infectando larvas de último estadio de Galleria mellonella y Tenebrio monitor con nematodos entomopatógenos. Dos cadáveres de seis días de infección se colocaron debajo de la superficie del suelo de macetas que fueron inoculadas con 100 juveniles de segundo estadio de M. incognita. A los sesenta días se registraron los siguientes parámetros en cada planta: número de hojas, peso seco de la parte aérea, número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos, y número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos g-1 de materia fresca radical. En pimiento, la única variable afectada por los cadáveres en relación al testigo fue el número de huevos de M. incognita en el tratamiento de cadáveres de T. molitor infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída. En zapallito redondo de tronco, varios tratamientos provocaron una disminución en el número de agallas y masas de huevos. Sólo la aplicación de cadáveres de G. mellonella infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída demostró ser eficiente en reducir el número de huevos de M. incognita. Nuestros resultados indicaron que la aplicación de cadáveres de insectos infectados con los nematodos entomopatógenos estudiados podría reducir los daños causados por M. incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Nematicidal metabolites produced by Photorhabdus luminescens (Enterobacteriaceae), bacterial symbiont of entomopathogenic nematodes

          The secondary metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene (ST) and indole, from the culture filtrate of Photorhabdus luminescens MD, were shown to have nematicidal properties. ST caused nearly 100% mortality of J4 and adults of Aphelenchoides rhytium , Bursaphelenchus spp. and Caenorhabditis elegans at 100 mu g/ml, but had no effect on J2 of Meloidogyne incognita or infective juveniles (IJ) of Heterorhabditis megidis at 200 mu g/ml. Indole was lethal to several nematode species at 300 mu g/ml, and caused a high percentage of Bursaphelenchus spp. (J4 and adults), M. incognita (J2) and Heterorhabditis spp. (IJ) to be paralysed at 300, 100 and 400 mu g/ml, respectively. Both ST and indole inhibited egg hatch of M. incognita . ST repelled IJ of some Steinernema spp. but not IJ of Heterorhabditis spp., and indole repelled IJ of some species of both Steinernema and Heterorhabditis . ST, but not indole, was produced in nematode-infected larval Galleria mellonella after 24 h infection. Von Photorhabdus luminescens (Enterobacteriaceae), einem Symbionten entomopathogener Nematoden gebildete nematizide Metaboliten - Es wurde gezeigt, dass die Sekundarmetaboliten 3,5-Dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilben (ST) und Indol aus dem Kulturfiltrat von Photorhabdus luminescens MD nematizide Eigenschaften besassen. In einer Konzentration von 100 mu g/ml verursachte ST eine fast 100%ige Sterblichkeit bei J4 und Adulten von Aphelenchoides rhytium , Bursaphelenchus spp. und Caenorhabditis elegans , hatte aber bei 200 mu g/ml keine Wirkung auf J2 von Meloidogyne incognita oder auf Infektionsjuvenile (IJ) von Heterorhabditis megidis . Bei 300 mu g/ml war Indol fur etliche Nematodenarten todlich und fuhrte dazu, dass Bursaphelenchus spp. (J4 and Adulte) bei 300, M. incognita (J2) bei 100, und Heterorhabditis spp. (IJ) bei 400 mu g/ml zu einem grossen Teil gelahmt wurden. ST und Indol behinderten beide das Schlupfen von M. incognita . ST wirkte abstossend auf IJ einiger Steinernema -Arten aber nicht auf IJ von Heterorhabditis spp., und Indol wirkte abstossend auf IJ einiger Arten der beiden Gattungen Steinernema und Heterorhabditis . ST wurde in nematoden-befallenen Larven von Galleria mellonella 24 h nach der Infektion gebildet, Indol dagegen nicht.
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            Effects of a novel entomopathogenic nematode-infected host formulation on cadaver integrity, nematode yield, and suppression of Diaprepes abbreviatus and Aethina tumida.

            An alternative approach to applying entomopathogenic nematodes entails the distribution of nematodes in their infected insect hosts. Protection of the infected host from rupturing, and improving ease of handling, may be necessary to facilitate application. In this study our objective was to test the potential of a new method of formulating the infected hosts, i.e., enclosing the infected host in masking tape. Tenebrio molitor L. cadavers infected with Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David or Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) were wrapped in tape using an automatic packaging machine; the machine was developed to reduce labor and to standardize the final product. The effects of the tape formulation on the ability to protect the cadavers from mechanical damage, nematode yield, and pest control efficacy were tested. After exposure to mechanical agitation at 7-d-post-infection, S. carpocapsae cadavers in tape were more resistant to rupture than cadavers without tape, yet H. indica cadavers 7-d-post-infection were not affected by mechanical agitation (with or without tape), nor was either nematode affected when 4-d-old cadavers were tested. Experiments indicated that infective juvenile yield was not affected by the tape formulation. Laboratory experiments were conducted measuring survival of the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), or the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray, after the application of two H. indica-infected hosts with or without tape per 15 cm pot (filled with soil). A greenhouse experiment was also conducted in a similar manner measuring survival of D. abbreviatus. In all experiments, both the tape and no-tape treatments caused significant reductions in insect survival relative to the control, and no differences were detected between the nematode treatments. Fifteen days post-application, the infected host treatments caused up to 78% control in A. tumida, 91% control in D. abbreviatus in the lab, and 75% in the greenhouse. These results indicate potential for using the tape-formulation approach for applying nematode infected hosts.
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              Allelopathy: a possible mechanism of suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes by entomopathogenic nematodes

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                ciagr
                Ciencia e investigación agraria
                Cienc. Inv. Agr.
                Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal (Santiago )
                0718-1620
                April 2013
                : 40
                : 1
                : 109-118
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Nacional del Litoral Argentina
                [2 ] Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas Argentina
                [3 ] Jardín Zoológico Argentina
                [4 ] Laboratorio de Biología Molecular Argentina
                Article
                S0718-16202013000100009
                10.4067/S0718-16202013000100009
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY

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