Blog
About

19
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility tests for sepsis; the road ahead

      1 , 2 , 3

      Journal of Medical Microbiology

      Microbiology Society

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 23

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Antimicrobial susceptibility testing: a review of general principles and contemporary practices.

          An important task of the clinical microbiology laboratory is the performance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of significant bacterial isolates. The goals of testing are to detect possible drug resistance in common pathogens and to assure susceptibility to drugs of choice for particular infections. The most widely used testing methods include broth microdilution or rapid automated instrument methods that use commercially marketed materials and devices. Manual methods that provide flexibility and possible cost savings include the disk diffusion and gradient diffusion methods. Each method has strengths and weaknesses, including organisms that may be accurately tested by the method. Some methods provide quantitative results (eg, minimum inhibitory concentration), and all provide qualitative assessments using the categories susceptible, intermediate, or resistant. In general, current testing methods provide accurate detection of common antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. However, newer or emerging mechanisms of resistance require constant vigilance regarding the ability of each test method to accurately detect resistance.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Early combination antibiotic therapy yields improved survival compared with monotherapy in septic shock: a propensity-matched analysis.

            Septic shock represents the major cause of infection-associated mortality in the intensive care unit. The possibility that combination antibiotic therapy of bacterial septic shock improves outcome is controversial. Current guidelines do not recommend combination therapy except for the express purpose of broadening coverage when resistant pathogens are a concern. To evaluate the therapeutic benefit of early combination therapy comprising at least two antibiotics of different mechanisms with in vitro activity for the isolated pathogen in patients with bacterial septic shock. Retrospective, propensity matched, multicenter, cohort study. Intensive care units of 28 academic and community hospitals in three countries between 1996 and 2007. A total of 4662 eligible cases of culture-positive, bacterial septic shock treated with combination or monotherapy from which 1223 propensity-matched pairs were generated. The primary outcome of study was 28-day mortality. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, combination therapy was associated with decreased 28-day mortality (444 of 1223 [36.3%] vs. 355 of 1223 [29.0%]; hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.88; p = .0002). The beneficial impact of combination therapy applied to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections but was restricted to patients treated with beta-lactams in combination with aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or macrolides/clindamycin. Combination therapy was also associated with significant reductions in intensive care unit (437 of 1223 [35.7%] vs. 352 of 1223 [28.8%]; odds ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.92; p = .0006) and hospital mortality (584 of 1223 [47.8%] vs. 457 of 1223 [37.4%]; odds ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.81; p < .0001). The use of combination therapy was associated with increased ventilator (median and [interquartile range], 10 [0-25] vs. 17 [0-26]; p = .008) and pressor/inotrope-free days (median and [interquartile range], 23 [0-28] vs. 25 [0-28]; p = .007) up to 30 days. Early combination antibiotic therapy is associated with decreased mortality in septic shock. Prospective randomized trials are needed.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Unraveling the physiological complexities of antibiotic lethality.

              We face an impending crisis in our ability to treat infectious disease brought about by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and a decline in the development of new antibiotics. Urgent action is needed. This review focuses on a less well-understood aspect of antibiotic action: the complex metabolic events that occur subsequent to the interaction of antibiotics with their molecular targets and play roles in antibiotic lethality. Independent lines of evidence from studies of the action of bactericidal antibiotics on diverse bacteria collectively suggest that the initial interactions of drugs with their targets cannot fully account for the antibiotic lethality and that these interactions elicit the production of reactive oxidants including reactive oxygen species that contribute to bacterial cell death. Recent challenges to this concept are considered in the context of the broader literature of this emerging area of research. Possible ways that this new knowledge might be exploited to improve antibiotic therapy are also considered.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Medical Microbiology
                Microbiology Society
                0022-2615
                1473-5644
                July 01 2019
                July 01 2019
                : 68
                : 7
                : 973-977
                Affiliations
                [1 ] 2 Department of Microbiology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia
                [2 ] 1 Schools of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, the University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
                [3 ] 3 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Region Kronoberg, Växjö, Sweden
                Article
                10.1099/jmm.0.000997
                © 2019

                Comments

                Comment on this article