10 December 2018
Ischemic stroke is characterized by permanent or transient obstruction of blood flow, which initiates a cascading pathological process, starting from acute ATP loss to subsequent membrane depolarization, glutamate excitotoxicity, and calcium overload. Melatonin is a potent antioxidant that exerts protective effects in different experimental stroke models. In this study, melatonin effects were demonstrated by a proteomic and in silico approach. The proteomic study identified differentially expressed proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis in the striatum 24 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Proteomic analysis revealed several proteins with aberrant expression and was validated by western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Homology modeling was performed to build 3D structures for γ-enolase, thioredoxin (TRX), and heat shock 60 (HSP60) by the template crystal structures using a protein data bank as a sequence database. The structure refinement of each model was achieved by energy minimization via molecular dynamic simulation, and the generated models were further assessed for stability by Procheck and ProSA. The models were processed for docking analysis using AutoDock Vina, and post-docking analysis was determined by discovery studio. The proteomic study showed decreased expression of γ-enolase, TRX, and protein phosphatase 2A subunit B and increased expression of collapsin response mediator protein 2 and HSP60 in the striatum after ischemic injury. Treatment with melatonin modulated the expression profiles of these proteins. This study demonstrated the neuroprotective role of melatonin in the ischemic striatum using a proteomic and in silico approach. Collectively, melatonin may act in a multimechanistic way by modulating the expression of several proteins in the ischemic striatum.