Growth hormone (GH) treatment of GH-deficient (GHD) children is to a certain extent standardized worldwide. Recombinant 22 kDa GH is injected once daily by the subcutaneous route, mostly in the evening. The amount of GH injected (calculated per kg body weight or body surface area, expressed in terms of IU or mg) in prepubertal children mimics the known production rate (approximately 0.02 mg [0.06 IU]/kg body weight per day). However, there is a wide variation in dosage, the reasons for which are partly unknown and partly due to national traditions and regimes imposed by authorities regulating reimbursement. The situation during puberty is less standardized, with most clinicians still not increasing the dosage according to known production rates. The results of these approaches in terms of adult height outcome are not always satisfactory. In order to achieve optimal height development during childhood, puberty and adulthood, strategies must be developed to individualize GH dosing according to set therapeutical goals taking into account efficacy, safety and cost. The implementation of prediction algorithms will help us to reach these goals. In addition, other response variables will have to be monitored during treatment in order to correct for deficits resulting from GHD.