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      Quality of life as a prognostic marker in pulmonary arterial hypertension


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          Improvement in quality of life together with better survival are the ultimate goals in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients with the SF-36 generic questionnaire and to identify the prognostic implication of this assessment.


          Fifty-four consecutive newly diagnosed PAH patients (WHO classification group I) in a single PAH reference center were included. Patients were evaluated at baseline for clinical and hemodynamic parameters, and they subsequently received first-line therapy with either an endothelin receptor antagonist or a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. After 16 weeks of specific PAH therapy, all patients were re-evaluated using a 6MWT and a SF 36 questionnaire, and then they were followed up for at least 36 months.


          After treatment, the patients demonstrated an improved 6MWT (414 ± 124 m vs. 440 ± 113 m, p = 0.001). Specific PAH therapy also improved the HRQL scores.

          Patients with a baseline Physical Component Score (PCS) higher than 32 had a better survival rate than those who had a score under 32 (p = 0.04). Similarly, patients with a PCS of at least a 38 after the 16 week therapy period had a better survival rate when compared with those who did not achieve this value (p = 0.016). Unlike the absolute PCS values, the post-treatment PCS variability was unable to predict better survival rates (p = 0.58).


          Our findings suggest that HRQL is associated with prognosis in PAH. Furthermore, achieving pre-determined PCS scores might represent a specific goal to be reached in treatment-to-target strategies.

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          The MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): III. Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability across diverse patient groups.

          The widespread use of standardized health surveys is predicated on the largely untested assumption that scales constructed from those surveys will satisfy minimum psychometric requirements across diverse population groups. Data from the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) were used to evaluate data completeness and quality, test scaling assumptions, and estimate internal-consistency reliability for the eight scales constructed from the MOS SF-36 Health Survey. Analyses were conducted among 3,445 patients and were replicated across 24 subgroups differing in sociodemographic characteristics, diagnosis, and disease severity. For each scale, item-completion rates were high across all groups (88% to 95%), but tended to be somewhat lower among the elderly, those with less than a high school education, and those in poverty. On average, surveys were complete enough to compute scales scores for more than 96% of the sample. Across patient groups, all scales passed tests for item-internal consistency (97% passed) and item-discriminant validity (92% passed). Reliability coefficients ranged from a low of 0.65 to a high of 0.94 across scales (median = 0.85) and varied somewhat across patient subgroups. Floor effects were negligible except for the two role disability scales. Noteworthy ceiling effects were observed for both role disability scales and the social functioning scale. These findings support the use of the SF-36 survey across the diverse populations studied and identify population groups in which use of standardized health status measures may or may not be problematic.
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            An evaluation of long-term survival from time of diagnosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension from the REVEAL Registry.

            The Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL Registry) was established to characterize the clinical course, treatment, and predictors of outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the United States. To date, estimated survival based on time of patient enrollment has been established and reported. To determine whether the survival of patients with PAH has improved over recent decades, we assessed survival from time of diagnosis for the REVEAL Registry cohort and compared these results to the estimated survival using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) prognostic equation. Newly or previously diagnosed patients (aged ≥ 3 months at diagnosis) with PAH enrolled from March 2006 to December 2009 at 55 US centers were included in the current analysis. A total of 2,635 patients qualified for this analysis. One-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates from time of diagnostic right-sided heart catheterization were 85%, 68%, 57%, and 49%, respectively. For patients with idiopathic/familial PAH, survival rates were 91% ± 2%, 74% ± 2%, 65% ± 3%, and 59% ± 3% compared with estimated survival rates of 68%, 47%, 36%, and 32%, respectively, using the NIH equation. Comprehensive analysis of survival from time of diagnosis in a large cohort of patients with PAH suggests considerable improvements in survival in the past 2 decades since the establishment of the NIH registry, the effects of which most likely reflect a combination of changes in treatments, improved patient support strategies, and possibly a PAH population at variance with other cohorts
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              Ambrisentan for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension: results of the ambrisentan in pulmonary arterial hypertension, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, efficacy (ARIES) study 1 and 2.

              Ambrisentan is a propanoic acid-based, A-selective endothelin receptor antagonist for the once-daily treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Ambrisentan in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Efficacy Study 1 and 2 (ARIES-1 and ARIES-2) were concurrent, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies that randomized 202 and 192 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, respectively, to placebo or ambrisentan (ARIES-1, 5 or 10 mg; ARIES-2, 2.5 or 5 mg) orally once daily for 12 weeks. The primary end point for each study was change in 6-minute walk distance from baseline to week 12. Clinical worsening, World Health Organization functional class, Short Form-36 Health Survey score, Borg dyspnea score, and B-type natriuretic peptide plasma concentrations also were assessed. In addition, a long-term extension study was performed. The 6-minute walk distance increased in all ambrisentan groups; mean placebo-corrected treatment effects were 31 m (P=0.008) and 51 m (P 3 times the upper limit of normal. In 280 patients completing 48 weeks of treatment with ambrisentan monotherapy, the improvement from baseline in 6-minute walk at 48 weeks was 39 m. Ambrisentan improves exercise capacity in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Improvements were observed for several secondary end points in each of the studies, although statistical significance was more variable. Ambrisentan is well tolerated and is associated with a low risk of aminotransferase abnormalities.

                Author and article information

                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
                BioMed Central (London )
                30 August 2014
                30 August 2014
                : 12
                : 1
                [ ]Pulmonary Department, Heart Institute – University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Medical School. Av. Dr. Eneas de Carvalho Aguiar, 44, 05403-000 Sao Paulo, Brazil
                [ ]Rheumatology Department, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
                © Fernandes et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Health & Social care
                quality of life,pulmonary arterial hypertension,survival,prognosis,treatment
                Health & Social care
                quality of life, pulmonary arterial hypertension, survival, prognosis, treatment


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