Background/Aims: Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is important in kidney transplantation. We have previously demonstrated that long-term I/R injury and immunosuppression affect apoptosis and inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms are far from clear. In this study, the involvement of caspase-7, Fas and FasL was further investigated. Methods: The right renal pedicle was clamped for 45 min followed by left nephrectomy in 40 rats. Cyclosporine (CsA), tacrolimus (Tac), rapamycin (Rap) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) were administered daily for 16 weeks. Caspase-7, Fas and FasL expression, and their correlations with caspase-3, apoptosis, inflammation, renal structure and function were evaluated. Results: Active caspase-7 was significantly increased in I/R and CsA-treated kidneys and decreased by Tac, Rap and MMF, while the caspase-7 precursor was enhanced by Rap. Active caspase-7-stained cells were scattered throughout the tubulointerstitium and often had apoptotic features. Fas, but not FasL, was increased in I/R and CsA-treated kidneys and decreased by Rap and MMF. Fas and FasL proteins were mainly located in dilated tubules. There were close correlations among caspase-7, Fas, caspase-3, apoptosis, inflammation, renal structure and function. Conclusion: Caspase-7, associated with caspase-3, apoptosis and inflammation, might be involved in long-term I/R and immunosuppressive injury, at least in part through the Fas-signalling pathway.