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      Contact Lens Visual Rehabilitation in Keratoconus and Corneal Keratoplasty

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          Abstract

          Keratoconus is the most common corneal distrophy. It's a noninflammatory progressive thinning process that leads to conical ectasia of the cornea, causing high myopia and astigmatism. Many treatment choices include spectacle correction and contact lens wear, collagen cross linking, intracorneal ring segments implantation and finally keratoplasty. Contact lenses are commonly used to reduce astigmatism and increase vision. There are various types of lenses are available. We reviewed soft contact lenses, rigid gas permeable contact lenses, piggyback contact lenses, hybrid contact lenses and scleral-semiscleral contact lenses in keratoconus management. The surgical option is keratoplasty, but even after sutur removal, high astigmatism may stil exists. Therefore, contact lens is an adequate treatment option to correct astigmatism after keratoplasty.

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          Most cited references35

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          Keratoconus: a review.

          Keratoconus is the most common primary ectasia. It usually occurs in the second decade of life and affects both genders and all ethnicities. The estimated prevalence in the general population is 54 per 100,000. Ocular signs and symptoms vary depending on disease severity. Early forms normally go unnoticed unless corneal topography is performed. Disease progression is manifested with a loss of visual acuity which cannot be compensated for with spectacles. Corneal thinning frequently precedes ectasia. In moderate and advance cases, a hemosiderin arc or circle line, known as Fleischer's ring, is frequently seen around the cone base. Vogt's striaes, which are fine vertical lines produced by Descemet's membrane compression, is another characteristic sign. Most patients eventually develop corneal scarring. Munson's sign, a V-shape deformation of the lower eyelid in downward position; Rizzuti's sign, a bright reflection from the nasal area of the limbus when light is directed to the limbus temporal area; and breakages in Descemet's membrane causing acute stromal oedema, known as hydrops, are observed in advanced stages. Classifications based on morphology, disease evolution, ocular signs and index-based systems of keratoconus have been proposed. Theories into the genetic, biomechanical and biochemical causes of keratoconus have been suggested. Management varies depending on disease severity. Incipient cases are managed with spectacles, mild to moderate cases with contact lenses and severe cases can be treated with keratoplasty. This article provides a review on the definition, epidemiology, clinical features, classification, histopathology, aetiology and pathogenesis, and management and treatment strategies for keratoconus. 2010 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Atopy and keratoconus: a multivariate analysis.

            The primary goal of this study was to determine if atopy is a risk factor for keratoconus. Other potential risk factors were also studied and included age, sex, race, eye rubbing, mitral valve prolapse, handedness, collagen vascular disease, ocular trauma, pigmentary retinopathy, Marfan's syndrome, Down's syndrome, and a history of contact lens wear. A case-control study was designed (n=120) with incident cases assembled from the years 1985-99. Controls were chosen from the same person-time experience as cases and were picked from a source population with multiple outcomes ensuring that none was knowingly related to any of the potential exposures being studied. Atopy was defined based on the UK working group 1994 definition (at least 4/6 criteria = complete, 3/6 criteria = incomplete, and at least 1/6 criteria = partial). Keratoconus was defined based on clinical criteria and previously published I-S values. Multiple logistic regression was used in the analysis to obtain the odds ratios as the measure of association. In the univariate associations, there was an association between keratoconus and atopy as well as eye rubbing and family history of keratoconus. However, in the multivariate analysis, only eye rubbing was still a significant predictor of keratoconus (odds ratio = 6.31 p = 0.001). This study supports the hypothesis that the most significant cause of keratoconus is eye rubbing. Atopy may contribute to keratoconus but most probably via eye rubbing associated with the itch of atopy. No other variable measured was significantly associated with the aetiology of keratoconus.
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              Mechanisms of rubbing-related corneal trauma in keratoconus.

              Corneal scarring in keratoconus, which is observed prior to contact lens wear and in association with a chronic habit of abnormal rubbing, suggests a keratocyte change to a repair phenotype in response to rubbing trauma. This review examines known and putative mechanisms for rubbing-related corneal trauma and cone formation. Responses to eye rubbing (and possible causal links) may include increased corneal temperature, epithelial thinning, increased concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the precorneal tears, abnormal enzyme activity, large intraocular pressure spikes, high hydrostatic tissue pressure, thixotropically reduced ground substance viscosity, temporary displacement of ground substance from the corneal apex, buckling and flexure of fibrils associated with waves of corneal indentation, biomechanically coupled curvature transfer to the cone apex, slippage between collagen fibrils at the cone apex, and changes to keratocytes due to mechanical trauma and/or high hydrostatic pressure, in addition to scar formation. Cone formation appears to depend on a loss of shear strength and may be a consequence of a reduction in ground substance viscosity and glue function, which could allow the cornea to bend and yield to intraocular pressure. For some forms of keratoconus, a reduction in shear strength and cone-forming deformation may be responses to rubbing trauma. Some of the mechanisms for corneal rubbing trauma may be relevant to post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis ectasia or complications following other types of corneal surgery. There appear to be indications for the control of chronic habits of abnormal rubbing.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Ophthalmol
                JOP
                Journal of Ophthalmology
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-004X
                2090-0058
                2012
                15 January 2012
                : 2012
                : 832070
                Affiliations
                1Department of Opthalmology, FSM Training and Research Hospital, Icerenkoy, Istanbul, Turkey
                2Department of Opthalmology, Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Training and Research Hospital, Kartal, Istanbul, Turkey
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Johnny E. Moore

                Article
                10.1155/2012/832070
                3265106
                22292112
                30c98283-6c4a-4711-a08b-c5432fde1310
                Copyright © 2012 Yelda Ozkurt et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 30 March 2011
                : 30 August 2011
                : 21 September 2011
                Categories
                Review Article

                Ophthalmology & Optometry
                Ophthalmology & Optometry

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