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      Autism-specific maternal autoantibodies recognize critical proteins in developing brain

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          Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental in origin, affecting an estimated 1 in 88 children in the United States. We previously described ASD-specific maternal autoantibodies that recognize fetal brain antigens. Herein, we demonstrate that lactate dehydrogenase A and B (LDH), cypin, stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1), collapsin response mediator proteins 1 and 2 (CRMP1, CRMP2) and Y-box-binding protein to comprise the seven primary antigens of maternal autoantibody-related (MAR) autism. Exclusive reactivity to specific antigen combinations was noted in 23% of mothers of ASD children and only 1% of controls. ASD children from mothers with specific reactivity to LDH, STIP1 and CRMP1 and/or cypin (7% vs 0% in controls; P<0.0002; odds ratios of 24.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.45–405)) had elevated stereotypical behaviors compared with ASD children from mothers lacking these antibodies. We describe the first panel of clinically significant biomarkers with over 99% specificity for autism risk thereby advancing our understanding of the etiologic mechanisms and therapeutic possibilities for MAR autism.

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          Most cited references 53

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          Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology.

           D Wheeler (2003)
          In addition to maintaining the GenBank(R) nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides data analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through NCBI's Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), LocusLink, the NCBITaxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR (e-PCR), Open Reading Frame (ORF) Finder, References Sequence (RefSeq), UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP), Human/Mouse Homology Map, Cancer Chromosome Aberration Project (CCAP), Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker (MM), Evidence Viewer (EV), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) database, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, SAGEmap, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), and the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART). Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of the resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at:
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            Placental transport of immunoglobulin G

             N E Simister (2003)
            Maternal antibodies transported across the placenta protect the newborn. Maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations in fetal blood increase from early in the second trimester through term, most antibodies being acquired during the third trimester. IgG1 is the most efficiently transported subclass and IgG2 the least. Transfer across the syncytiotrophoblast of the chorionic villi is mediated by the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn. Immune complexes are absorbed in the stroma of the villi, probably by FcgammaRI, FcgammaRII, and FcgammaRIII on placental macrophages. The mechanism of IgG transport across the endothelium of fetal capillaries is not understood. Endothelial cells in terminal villi express FcgammaRIIb. However, it is not known whether this receptor transports IgG or prevents transport of immune complexes to the fetus.
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              Evolution of maternofetal transport of immunoglobulins during human pregnancy.

              We determined the evolution of the maternal-fetal transport of immunoglobulins during human pregnancy. Paired blood samples were collected between 17-41 weeks of gestation (WG) by puncture of a peripheral maternal vein and by cordocentesis (17-36 WG, n = 91) or directly at delivery (37-41 WG n = 16) from the umbilical vein. Additional maternal samples were collected from the same individual (n = 16) at 10, 20, 30 WG, and at term. The concentration of IgG and its four subclasses and of IgA were determined in the sera using ELISA method. The mean level of IgG and IgA in maternal sera at 9-16 WG was 13.72 +/- 2.53 g/L and 3.95 +/- 1.23 g/L, respectively. Both, IgG and IgA throughout pregnancy decreased to a level of 60-70% (37-41 WG) of the initial concentration in early pregnancy. The ratio of IgG1:IgG2 in the maternal circulation was 2-3 and remained constant throughout pregnancy (17-41 WG). IgG3 and IgG4 levels remained constant and together were less than 10% of total IgG. In the fetal circulation a continuous rise in the level of both IgG and IgA was observed between 17 and 41 WG. Fetal level of IgG at 17-22 WG was only 5-10% of the maternal level and at term exceeded the maternal level reaching a value of 11.98 +/- 2.18 g/L. IgG1 at 17-22 WG was 0.93 +/- 0.42 g/L, which is approximately three times higher than IgG2. IgG1 showed an exponential rise and at 37-41 WG its concentration was seven times higher than IgG2. IgG3 and IgG4 also showed an exponential rise and at term reached a similar level as in the maternal circulation. Striking was the difference in results for IgG2 with a slow linear rise throughout gestation. The fetal IgG2 level at term remained significantly below the maternal concentration. The IgG subclasses when characterized according to the differences in transport capacity gave the following sequence: IgG1 > IgG4 > IgG3 > IgG2. Fetal IgA showed a slow linear rise with fetal levels at term remaining approximately 1,000 times lower than the concentration in the maternal circulation. Comparison of fetal and maternal levels of immunglobulines indicate that the human placenta during pregnancy develops a specific transport mechanism for IgG. There are differences for the four subclasses with preferential transfer of IgG1 while the slowest transfer is seen for IgG2.

                Author and article information

                Transl Psychiatry
                Transl Psychiatry
                Translational Psychiatry
                Nature Publishing Group
                July 2013
                09 July 2013
                1 July 2013
                : 3
                : 7
                : e277
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, University of California at Davis , Davis, CA, USA
                [2 ]Davis M.I.N.D. Institute, University of California , Davis, CA, USA
                [3 ]Children's Center for Environmental Health, University of California at Davis , Davis, CA, USA
                [4 ]Division of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California at Davis , Davis, CA, USA
                [5 ]Department of Pediatrics, University of California at Davis , Davis, CA, USA
                [6 ]Department of Medical Microbiology, University of California at Davis , Davis, CA, USA
                [7 ]Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis , Davis, CA, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California at Davis, 451 E Health Sciences Drive, Suite 6510 ; Davis, CA 95616, USA. Email: javandewater@
                Copyright © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit

                Original Article

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry

                neurodevelopment, fetal brain, autoantibodies, autism


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