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      The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses.

      Nature immunology

      Animals, Cell Line, Tumor, Cells, Cultured, DNA-Binding Proteins, metabolism, Gene Expression Regulation, Genes, Reporter, genetics, Humans, Interferon Regulatory Factor-3, Interferons, biosynthesis, immunology, Mice, NF-kappa B, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Proteins, chemistry, RNA Helicases, RNA, Double-Stranded, physiology, RNA, Messenger, RNA, Small Interfering, Sequence Deletion, Signal Transduction, Transcription Factors, Transcriptional Activation, Viruses, growth & development

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          Abstract

          Intracellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a chief sign of replication for many viruses. Host mechanisms detect the dsRNA and initiate antiviral responses. In this report, we identify retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), which encodes a DExD/H box RNA helicase that contains a caspase recruitment domain, as an essential regulator for dsRNA-induced signaling, as assessed by functional screening and assays. A helicase domain with intact ATPase activity was responsible for the dsRNA-mediated signaling. The caspase recruitment domain transmitted 'downstream' signals, resulting in the activation of transcription factors NF-kappaB and IRF-3. Subsequent gene activation by these factors induced antiviral functions, including type I interferon production. Thus, RIG-I is key in the detection and subsequent eradication of the replicating viral genomes.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          15208624
          10.1038/ni1087

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