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      A new diagnosis of asthma or COPD is linked to smoking cessation – the Tromsø study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Patients with COPD have had a lower tendency to quit smoking compared to patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We wanted to investigate if this is still true in a Norwegian population.

          Methods

          Our data came from the fifth and sixth Tromsø surveys, which took place in 2001–2002 and 2007–2008. The predictors of smoking cessation were evaluated in a cohort of 4,497 participants who had stated their smoking status in both surveys.

          Results

          Of the 4,497 subjects in the cohort, 1,150 (25.6%) reported daily smoking in Tromsø 5. In Tromsø 6, 428 had quit (37.2%). A new diagnosis of obstructive lung disease (asthma or COPD) and CHD were both associated with increased quitting rates, 50.6% ( P=0.01) and 52.1% ( P=0.02), respectively. In multivariable logistic regression analysis with smoking cessation as outcome, the odds ratios (ORs) of a new diagnosis of obstructive lung disease and of CHD were 1.7 (1.1–2.7) and 1.7 (1.0–2.9), respectively. Male sex had an OR of 1.4 (1.1–1.8) compared to women in the multivariable model, whereas the ORs of an educational length of 13–16 years and ≥17 years compared to shorter education were 1.6 (1.1–2.2) and 2.5 (1.5–4.1), respectively.

          Conclusion

          The general trend of smoking cessation in the population was confirmed. Increased rates of smoking cessation were associated with a new diagnosis of heart or lung disease, and obstructive lung disease was just as strongly linked to smoking cessation as was CHD. This should encourage the pursuit of early diagnosis of COPD.

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          Most cited references 20

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          50-year trends in smoking-related mortality in the United States.

          The disease risks from cigarette smoking increased in the United States over most of the 20th century, first among male smokers and later among female smokers. Whether these risks have continued to increase during the past 20 years is unclear. We measured temporal trends in mortality across three time periods (1959-1965, 1982-1988, and 2000-2010), comparing absolute and relative risks according to sex and self-reported smoking status in two historical cohort studies and in five pooled contemporary cohort studies, among participants who became 55 years of age or older during follow-up. For women who were current smokers, as compared with women who had never smoked, the relative risks of death from lung cancer were 2.73, 12.65, and 25.66 in the 1960s, 1980s, and contemporary cohorts, respectively; corresponding relative risks for male current smokers, as compared with men who had never smoked, were 12.22, 23.81, and 24.97. In the contemporary cohorts, male and female current smokers also had similar relative risks for death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (25.61 for men and 22.35 for women), ischemic heart disease (2.50 for men and 2.86 for women), any type of stroke (1.92 for men and 2.10 for women), and all causes combined (2.80 for men and 2.76 for women). Mortality from COPD among male smokers continued to increase in the contemporary cohorts in nearly all the age groups represented in the study and within each stratum of duration and intensity of smoking. Among men 55 to 74 years of age and women 60 to 74 years of age, all-cause mortality was at least three times as high among current smokers as among those who had never smoked. Smoking cessation at any age dramatically reduced death rates. The risk of death from cigarette smoking continues to increase among women and the increased risks are now nearly identical for men and women, as compared with persons who have never smoked. Among men, the risks associated with smoking have plateaued at the high levels seen in the 1980s, except for a continuing, unexplained increase in mortality from COPD.
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            Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review.

            As more interventions become available for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), policy makers and health practitioners need to understand the benefits of each intervention, to better determine where to focus resources. This is particularly true when a patient with CHD quits smoking. To conduct a systematic review to determine the magnitude of risk reduction achieved by smoking cessation in patients with CHD. Nine electronic databases were searched from start of database to April 2003, supplemented by cross-checking references, contact with experts, and with large international cohort studies (identified by the Prospective Studies Collaboration). Prospective cohort studies of patients who were diagnosed with CHD were included if they reported all-cause mortality and had at least 2 years of follow-up. Smoking status had to be measured after CHD diagnosis to ascertain quitting. Two reviewers independently assessed studies to determine eligibility, quality assessment of studies, and results, and independently carried out data extraction using a prepiloted, standardized form. From the literature search, 665 publications were screened and 20 studies were included. Results showed a 36% reduction in crude relative risk (RR) of mortality for patients with CHD who quit compared with those who continued smoking (RR, 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-0.71). Results from individual studies did not vary greatly despite many differences in patient characteristics, such as age, sex, type of CHD, and the years in which studies took place. Adjusted risk estimates did not differ substantially from crude estimates. Many studies did not adequately address quality issues, such as control of confounding, and misclassification of smoking status. However, restriction to 6 higher-quality studies had little effect on the estimate (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.65-0.77). Few studies included large numbers of elderly persons, women, ethnic minorities, or patients from developing countries. Quitting smoking is associated with a substantial reduction in risk of all-cause mortality among patients with CHD. This risk reduction appears to be consistent regardless of age, sex, index cardiac event, country, and year of study commencement.
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              The effects of a smoking cessation intervention on 14.5-year mortality: a randomized clinical trial.

              Randomized clinical trials have not yet demonstrated the mortality benefit of smoking cessation. To assess the long-term effect on mortality of a randomly applied smoking cessation program. The Lung Health Study was a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation. Special intervention participants received the smoking intervention program and were compared with usual care participants. Vital status was followed up to 14.5 years. 10 clinical centers in the United States and Canada. 5887 middle-aged volunteers with asymptomatic airway obstruction. All-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and other respiratory disease. The intervention was a 10-week smoking cessation program that included a strong physician message and 12 group sessions using behavior modification and nicotine gum, plus either ipratropium or a placebo inhaler. At 5 years, 21.7% of special intervention participants had stopped smoking since study entry compared with 5.4% of usual care participants. After up to 14.5 years of follow-up, 731 patients died: 33% of lung cancer, 22% of cardiovascular disease, 7.8% of respiratory disease other than cancer, and 2.3% of unknown causes. All-cause mortality was significantly lower in the special intervention group than in the usual care group (8.83 per 1000 person-years vs. 10.38 per 1000 person-years; P = 0.03). The hazard ratio for mortality in the usual care group compared with the special intervention group was 1.18 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.37). Differences in death rates for both lung cancer and cardiovascular disease were greater when death rates were analyzed by smoking habit. Results apply only to individuals with airway obstruction. Smoking cessation intervention programs can have a substantial effect on subsequent mortality, even when successful in a minority of participants.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2016
                30 June 2016
                : 11
                : 1453-1458
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Community Medicine, The Arctic University of Norway
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway
                [3 ]General Practice Research Unit, Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hasse Melbye, General Practice Research Unit, MH-building, Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway, Email hasse.melbye@ 123456uit.no
                Article
                copd-11-1453
                10.2147/COPD.S108046
                4934533
                27418818
                © 2016 Danielsen et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                coronary heart disease, smoking cessation, cohort study, copd, asthma

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