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      Métodos de evaluación muscular para el diagnóstico de sarcopenia en pacientes cirróticos Translated title: Muscle assessment methods for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in cirrhotic patients

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          Abstract

          Resumen La sarcopenia es la pérdida de masa y función muscular. Su presencia ensombrece el pronóstico de los pacientes cirróticos. El gold standard para la descripción de sarcopenia es el Skeletal Muscle Index (SMI). Se incluyeron 34 pacientes cirróticos. Se realizó medición a través de tomografía computarizada de ambos psoas por separado, que luego fueron sumados obteniendo lo que se denominó “suma de área de 2 psoas”, además se midió área muscular total, SMI y área total de psoas. También se realizó ecografía y se midió el área transversal de recto anterior del cuádriceps por ecografía y Hand Grip (HG). Se analizó la corre lación entre las distintas mediciones comparando con el área muscular total, con área de cuádriceps (r = 0.39; P = 0.019), con área total de psoas (r = 0.71; P < 0.01), con suma de área de 2 psoas (r= 0.72; P < 0.001) y con HG (r = 0.45; P = 0.0069). Comparado con el SMI, en mujeres el HG tuvo 86% sensibilidad y 66% especificidad (AUC = 0.89). En hombres la suma de 2 psoas tuvo 91.7% de sensibilidad y especificidad (AUC = 0.82) y el área total de psoas tuvo 83.3% de sensibilidad y 76.9% de especificidad (AUC = 0.8). Hubo muy buena correlación entre los métodos de tomografía con el gold standard, y la correlación con la ecografía y la fuerza fue buena. Evaluando sensibilidad, especificidad y AUC, no se consideró un método útil para ambos sexos, comparado con el SMI

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and function. Its presence darkens the prognosis of cirrhotic patients. The gold standard for the description of sarcopenia is the Skeletal Muscle Index (SMI). Thirty-four cirrhotic patients were included. Measurement was carried out through CT of both psoas separately that were then added obtain ing the so called “sum of area of 2 psoas”, in addition total muscular area, SMI and total area of psoas were measured. Ultrasonography was also performed and the transverse area of the quadriceps rectus anterior was measured by ultrasound and Hand Grip (HG). The correlation between the different measurements was analyzed comparing with the total muscle area, with quadriceps area (r = 0.39; p = 0.019), with total psoas area (r = 0.71; p <0.01), with sum of area of 2 psoas (r = 0.72; p <0.001) and with HG (r = 0.45; p = 0.0069). Compared with SMI, in women HG had 86% sensitivity and 66% specificity (AUC = 0.89). In men, the sum of 2 psoas had 91.7% sensitivity and specificity (AUC = 0.82) and the total area of psoas had 83.3% sensitivity and 76.9% specificity (AUC = 0.8). There was a very good correlation between the tomography methods with the gold standard. The correlation with ultrasound and strength was good. In the evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and AUC, it was not found a useful method when comparing with the SMI.

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          Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis

          Abstract Background in 2010, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) published a sarcopenia definition that aimed to foster advances in identifying and caring for people with sarcopenia. In early 2018, the Working Group met again (EWGSOP2) to update the original definition in order to reflect scientific and clinical evidence that has built over the last decade. This paper presents our updated findings. Objectives to increase consistency of research design, clinical diagnoses and ultimately, care for people with sarcopenia. Recommendations sarcopenia is a muscle disease (muscle failure) rooted in adverse muscle changes that accrue across a lifetime; sarcopenia is common among adults of older age but can also occur earlier in life. In this updated consensus paper on sarcopenia, EWGSOP2: (1) focuses on low muscle strength as a key characteristic of sarcopenia, uses detection of low muscle quantity and quality to confirm the sarcopenia diagnosis, and identifies poor physical performance as indicative of severe sarcopenia; (2) updates the clinical algorithm that can be used for sarcopenia case-finding, diagnosis and confirmation, and severity determination and (3) provides clear cut-off points for measurements of variables that identify and characterise sarcopenia. Conclusions EWGSOP2's updated recommendations aim to increase awareness of sarcopenia and its risk. With these new recommendations, EWGSOP2 calls for healthcare professionals who treat patients at risk for sarcopenia to take actions that will promote early detection and treatment. We also encourage more research in the field of sarcopenia in order to prevent or delay adverse health outcomes that incur a heavy burden for patients and healthcare systems.
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            Definition and classification of cancer cachexia: an international consensus.

            To develop a framework for the definition and classification of cancer cachexia a panel of experts participated in a formal consensus process, including focus groups and two Delphi rounds. Cancer cachexia was defined as a multifactorial syndrome defined by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass (with or without loss of fat mass) that cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support and leads to progressive functional impairment. Its pathophysiology is characterised by a negative protein and energy balance driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and abnormal metabolism. The agreed diagnostic criterion for cachexia was weight loss greater than 5%, or weight loss greater than 2% in individuals already showing depletion according to current bodyweight and height (body-mass index [BMI] <20 kg/m(2)) or skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). An agreement was made that the cachexia syndrome can develop progressively through various stages--precachexia to cachexia to refractory cachexia. Severity can be classified according to degree of depletion of energy stores and body protein (BMI) in combination with degree of ongoing weight loss. Assessment for classification and clinical management should include the following domains: anorexia or reduced food intake, catabolic drive, muscle mass and strength, functional and psychosocial impairment. Consensus exists on a framework for the definition and classification of cancer cachexia. After validation, this should aid clinical trial design, development of practice guidelines, and, eventually, routine clinical management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis

              doi: 10.1093/ageing/afy169 In the original version of the above paper there was an error in Table 3, which shows the recommended cut-off points for ASM/height2 in women. The cut-off point was given as <6.0 kg/m2, but the correct value is <5.5 kg/m2. This has now been corrected online. The authors wish to apologise for this error.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                medba
                Medicina (Buenos Aires)
                Medicina (B. Aires)
                Fundación Revista Medicina (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, , Argentina )
                0025-7680
                1669-9106
                August 2021
                : 81
                : 6
                : 958-964
                Affiliations
                [3] orgnameHospital Británico de Buenos Aires orgdiv1Servicio de Diagnóstico por Imágenes Argentina
                [2] orgnameHospital Británico de Buenos Aires orgdiv1Servicio de Trasplante Hepático
                [1] orgnameUniversidad de Buenos Aires orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Médicas orgdiv2Departamento de Bioquímica Argentina
                Article
                S0025-76802021000800958 S0025-7680(21)08100600958
                3102fd24-141d-41c3-a7f8-e4bb5d2f0931

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 09 April 2021
                : 02 August 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 49, Pages: 7
                Product

                SciELO Argentina

                Categories
                Artículos originales

                Sarcopenia,Cirrosis hepática,Musculo psoas,Musculo cuádriceps,Tomografía,Ecografía,Liver cirrhosis,Psoas muscles,Quadriceps muscle,Tomography,Ultrasonography

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