Objective: We clarified the predictive and prognostic value of circulating plasma exosomal microRNA-21 (miR-21) in each TNM stage of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Methods: The microRNA (miRNA) profiles of the plasma exosomes, primary tumor tissues, and liver metastasis tissues from the same CRC patients were examined using a microarray. For validation analysis, the plasma exosome samples from 326 CRC patients were measured by TaqMan miRNA assays. Results: In the miRNA microarray analyses, miR-21 showed the highest upregulation in exosomes, primary tumor tissues, and liver metastasis tissues. Significant correlations were demonstrated between exosomal miR-21 and tissue miR-21 levels. As for the relationship to the pathological condition, exosomal miR-21 showed a significant association with liver metastasis and TNM stage. The overall survival (OS) rates and disease-free survival (DFS) rates in high-exosomal-miR-21 patients were significantly worse than those in low-miR-21 patients. Exosomal miR-21 levels were an independent prognostic factor for OS and DFS in CRC patients with TNM stage II or III, and for OS in patients with TNM stage IV. Conclusion: Plasma exosomal miR-21 levels are a useful biomarker for the prediction of recurrence and poor prognosis in CRC patients with TNM stage II, III, or IV.