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      Is there a relationship between self-efficacy, disability, pain and sociodemographic characteristics in chronic low back pain? A multicenter retrospective analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Pain-related self-efficacy is defined as the beliefs held by people with chronic pain that certain activities can be carried out despite the pain. Poor self-efficacy is an obstacle to the recovery and predicts long-term disability. The aims of this study are to investigate the prevalence of poor pain self-efficacy in Italian subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP), and to inquire the relationships between self-efficacy, disability, pain, and main demographic and clinical characteristics.

          Methods

          A secondary multicenter retrospective analysis was done on 310 outpatients with chronic non-specific LBP. The pain self-efficacy measured with the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ), the disability measured with the Roland & Morris Disability Questionnaire, and the pain intensity measured with the Numerical Rating Scale were considered variables to investigate, whereas demographic and clinical variables were considered predictors or potential confounders. A 40/60 PSEQ score was adopted as cut-off to distinguish between good and poor self-efficacy.

          Results

          199 subjects (64.2% of the sample) showed poor self-efficacy. The odds of having poor self-efficacy appeared significantly related to female gender (OR = 1.80, 95%CI [1.12;2.90]; p = 0.015) and drugs use (OR = 1.68, 95%CI [1.06;2.70]; p = 0.029). Significant relationships also emerged between disability and higher age (β = 0.07, 95%CI [0.01; 0.12]; p = 0.02), being female (β = 1.80, 95%CI [0.32;3.29]; p = 0.018), low educational level (β = − 1.68, 95%CI [− 2.59;-3.29]; p < 0.001), higher height (β = − 0.08, 95%CI [− 0.158;-0.002]; p = 0.045), pain duration [mos] (β = 0.01, 95%CI [0.001;0.021]; p = 0.041), and drugs use (β = 2.86, 95%CI [1.44;4.27]; p < 0.001). The amount of pain appeared significantly related to educational level (β = − 0.47, 95%CI [− 0.76;-0.182]; p < 0.001), smoking (β = 0.56, 95%CI [0.09; 1.03]; p = 0.021), height (β = − 0.03, 95%CI [− 0.05; − 0.002]; p = 0.036), and drugs use (β = 0.81, 95%CI [0.399;1.22]; p < 0.001). No significant correlation appeared among weight, body mass index, and referred pain neither in relation to self-efficacy, nor in relation to pain/disability.

          Conclusions

          The majority of our sample, composed of Italian people complained of chronic LBP, shows poor self-efficacy. Female gender and drugs use are significantly related to poor self-efficacy, low educational level negatively influences the amount of perceived pain and disability, and older age and smoking are related to disability and pain intensity, respectively. The knowledge of these sociodemographic and clinical characteristics potentially influencing chronic LBP may be useful to address more efforts towards the most negatively impacted subjects, among the entire population complained of chronic LBP.

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          Most cited references51

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          Psychological aspects of persistent pain: current state of the science.

          This article provides an overview of current research on psychological aspects of persistent pain. It is divided into 3 sections. In section 1, recent studies are reviewed that provide evidence that psychological factors are related to adjustment to persistent pain. This section addresses research on factors associated with increased pain and poorer adjustment to pain (ie, pain catastrophizing, pain-related anxiety and fear of pain, and helplessness) and factors associated with decreased pain and improved adjustment to pain (ie, self-efficacy, pain coping strategies, readiness to change, and acceptance). In section 2, we review recent research on behavioral and psychosocial interventions for patients with persistent pain. Topics addressed include early intervention, tailoring treatment, telephone/Internet-based treatment, caregiver-assisted treatment, and exposure-based protocols. In section 3, we conclude with a general discussion that highlights steps needed to advance this area of research including developing more comprehensive and integrative conceptual models, increasing attention to the social context of pain, examining the link of psychological factors to pain-related brain activation patterns, and investigating the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of psychological treatments for pain. This is one of several invited commentaries to appear in The Journal of Pain in recognition of The Decade of Pain Research. This article provides an overview of current research on psychological aspects of persistent pain, and highlights steps needed to advance this area of research. Copyright 2004 American Pain Society
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            The association between smoking and low back pain: a meta-analysis.

            To assess the association between smoking and low back pain with meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases until February 2009. Eighty-one studies were reviewed and 40 (27 cross-sectional and 13 cohort) studies were included in the meta-analyses. In cross-sectional studies, current smoking was associated with increased prevalence of low back pain in the past month (pooled odds ratio [OR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.45), low back pain in the past 12 months (OR 1.33, 95% CI, 1.26-1.41), seeking care for low back pain (OR 1.49, 95% CI, 1.38-1.60), chronic low back pain (OR 1.79, 95% CI, 1.27-2.50) and disabling low back pain (OR 2.14, 95% CI, 1.11-4.13). Former smokers had a higher prevalence of low back pain compared with never smokers, but a lower prevalence of low back pain than current smokers. In cohort studies, both former (OR 1.32, 95% CI, 0.99-1.77) and current (OR 1.31, 95% CI, 1.11-1.55) smokers had an increased incidence of low back pain compared with never smokers. The association between current smoking and the incidence of low back pain was stronger in adolescents (OR 1.82, 95% CI, 1.42-2.33) than in adults (OR 1.16, 95% CI, 1.02-1.32). Our findings indicate that both current and former smokers have a higher prevalence and incidence of low back pain than never smokers, but the association is fairly modest. The association between current smoking and the incidence of low back pain is stronger in adolescents than in adults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              The role of fear of movement/(re)injury in pain disability.

              It is now well established that in chronic low back pain, there is no direct relationship between impairments, pain, and disability. From a cognitive-behavioral perspective, pain disability is not only influenced by the organic pathology, but also by cognitive-perceptual, psychophysiological, and motoric-environmental factors. This paper focuses on the role of specific beliefs that are associated with avoidance of activities. These beliefs are related to fear of movement and physical activity, which is (wrongfully) assumed to cause (re)injury. Two studies are presented, of which the first examines the factor structure of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK), a recently developed questionnaire that is aimed at quantifying fear of movement/(re)injury. In the second study, the value of fear of movement/(re)injury in predicting disability levels is analyzed, when the biomedical status of the patient and current pain intensity levels are controlled for. In addition, the determinants of fear of movement/(re)injury are examined. The discussion focuses on the clinical relevance of the fear-avoidance model in relation to risk assessment, assessment of functional capacity, and secondary prevention.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                silvano.ferrari@fastwebnet.it
                carla.vanti@unibo.it
                marta.pellizzer@icloud.com
                luca.dozza@gmail.com
                mmonticone@gmail.com
                paolo.pillastrini@unibo.it
                Journal
                Arch Physiother
                Arch Physiother
                Archives of Physiotherapy
                BioMed Central (London )
                2057-0082
                12 October 2019
                12 October 2019
                2019
                : 9
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 3470, GRID grid.5608.b, Department of Biomedical Sciences, , University of Padova, ; Padova, Italy
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 1758, GRID grid.6292.f, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (DIBINEM), , Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, ; Bologna, Italy
                [3 ]Public Health Company - ULSS 7 Pedemontana, Bassano del Grappa, VI Italy
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 1758, GRID grid.6292.f, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), , Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, ; Bologna, Italy
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1755 3242, GRID grid.7763.5, Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, , University of Cagliari, ; Cagliari, Italy
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8396-2250
                Article
                61
                10.1186/s40945-019-0061-8
                6790029
                31632695
                31070d24-900e-4da3-83af-f04de5429182
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 22 January 2019
                : 12 September 2019
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                pain self-efficacy,spinal pain,outcome measures,disability,musculoskeletal disorders

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