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      Bacteriological profile, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates among street vended foods and hygienic practice of vendors in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

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          Abstract

          Background

          There are numerous advantages offered by street vended foods, but evidence exists that foods exposed for sale on the road side may be contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms. However, information on the bacteriological profile, bacterial load and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates from street food in Gondar town are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess bacterial profile, bacterial load, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates among street vended foods and also the hygienic practice of vendors in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia.

          Methods

          Socio-demographic characteristics and the hygienic practices of 24 vendors were collected using structured questionnaire. A total of 72 food samples from four different food items were analyzed and counted by standard aerobic plate count method. Ten grams of each food sample was transferred in to 90 ml of buffered peptone water and homogenized. The homogenates were serially dilute and a volume of 0.1 ml dilution was spread on solid media and incubated at 35-37 °C for 24 h. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for isolated species using Muller Hinton agar and data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0.

          Results

          Seventy two food samples of street vended food were analysed for bacterial pathogens. 44/72 tested positive, a total of 63 isolates were identified as 19 samples contained two pathogens. The total mean aerobic bacterial count was 6.64 × 10 4 CFU/g which is varied from 1 × 10 4–1.86 × 10 5 CFU/g. S. aureus is the most frequent isolate 34 (53.96%) followed by E.coli 15(23.8%), Enterobacter species 10(15.87%) and Citrobacter species 4(6.3%). Gentamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were found to be the most effective antimicrobials against all isolates but the enterobactereaceae were resistant to ampicillin and Ceftaziidime and S.aureus were resistant to penicillin.

          Conclusion

          The results of this study showed that, the majority of street-vended food items in Gondar were contaminated with one or more different pathogenic bacteria. The presence of these bacteria in foods could lead to potential health problems for consumers. Therefore, health education as well as training in food safety and hygienic handling is required for food handlers to minimize contamination and the likelihood of people falling ill.

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          Most cited references26

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          Street vended food in developing world: hazard analyses.

          Street food vending has become an important public health issue and a great concern to everybody. This is due to widespread food borne diseases, due to the mushrooming of wayside food vendors who lack an adequate understanding of the basic food safety issues. Major sources contributing to microbial contamination are the place of preparation, utensils for cooking and serving, raw materials, time and temperature abuse of cooked foods and the personal hygiene of vendors. Various studies have identified the sources of food safety issues involved in street foods to be microorganism belonging to the genus Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Vibrio, Campylobacter, Listeria, Salmonella. Application of sound risk analysis policies is being advocated to provide a scientific base to the host of risk management option which India may need to explore to ensure public health and safety.
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            Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella spp. in some raw street vended Indian foods.

            In India, the street food trade is a growing sector with its expansion linked with urbanisation and the need of urban populations for both employment and food. However, the microbiological status of popularly consumed raw street foods, general hygienic and vending practices are not known. We visited 75 vendors (50 having fixed stalls and 25 with mobile stalls) operating in three major locations: mandi (open market place), bus terminus and railway station in New Delhi and Patiala City. A total of 150 samples each of coriander sauce, of ready-to-eat salads and coconut slices collected were analysed for Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella spp. Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus were detected in 91 (60%) samples of coriander sauce, 87 (58%) samples of coconut slices and 129 (86%) samples of ready-to-eat salads. Twenty-three (15%) samples of coconut slices contained Shigella (18 Sh. dysenteraie type 1 and 5 Sh. flexneri 2a), 13 (8%) samples of ready-to-eat salads and 10 (6%) samples of coriander sauce contained Sh. flexneri 2a. Street vendors lacked access to potable water, toilet facilities and operated under poor hygiene conditions. The results of our study suggest that street vended coconut slices, coriander sauce and ready-to-eat salads could be important potential vehicles for food-borne diseases.
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              Bacteriological Quality of Street Foods and Antimicrobial Resistance of Isolates in Hawassa, Ethiopia

              Background Microbial contamination of ready-to-eat foods and beverages sold by street vendors and hawkers has become an important public health issue. In Ethiopia, health risks related to such kinds of foods are thought to be common. Thus, this study has tried to determine the bacteriological quality of ready- to- eat foods sold on streets. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on street foods in Hawassa City from May to September 2014. A total of 72 samples from six food items such as local bread (‘ambasha’ and ‘kita’), raw fish, chilli (‘awaze’), avocado and cooked potato were collected. Bacterial isolation, colony count and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were made following standard microbiological techniques. Results About 31% of the food samples showed total colony counts ranging from 1.7×105 to 6.7×106 colony-forming unit per gram (CFU/g) which is beyond the acceptable limits set for microbiological quality of ready- to -eat foods. The mean coliform and Enterobacteriaceae counts in raw fish, ‘kita’ and ‘ambasha’ were also higher than the limits. E.coli was the most frequent isolate (29.6%) followed by Salmonella species (12.7% and S.aureus (9.9%). All isolates were 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin. About 89% of Salmonella sp was resistant to chloramphenicol. Alarmingly, 14.3% of S.aureus was resistant to vancomycin. Conclusion This study confirmed considerable rate of contamination in street vended foods in Hawassa City. The identified foodborne bacteria and antibiotic resistance isolates could pose a public health problem in that locality. Therefore, regular inspection, health education and training of vendors on food handling and safety practices are recommended.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                azanaw03@gmail.com
                workutiftotiti@gmail.com
                birucitait1223@gmail.com
                marieadugna6@gmail.com
                alemgetaneh2@gmail.com
                dagnewmulat@gmail.com
                Journal
                BMC Microbiol
                BMC Microbiol
                BMC Microbiology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2180
                7 June 2019
                7 June 2019
                2019
                : 19
                : 120
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8539 4635, GRID grid.59547.3a, Department of Medical Microbiology, , University of Gondar, College of Medicine and Health Sciences School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, ; Gondar, Ethiopia
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8539 4635, GRID grid.59547.3a, University of Gondar, College of Medicine and Health Sciences School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, Comprehensive Specialized Hospital Laboratory, ; Gondar, Ethiopia
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1608-6737
                Article
                1509
                10.1186/s12866-019-1509-4
                6556002
                31174476
                310860f0-ed28-43a2-bd20-d01aa1881c79
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 4 September 2018
                : 2 June 2019
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Microbiology & Virology
                street vended foods,bacterial profile,antibiotic susceptibility patterns,gondar town

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