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      Thyroid dysfunction in patients with impaired glucose metabolism: 11 year follow up from the Tehran Thyroid Study

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          This study aimed to assess the prevalence and incidence and predictive factors of thyroid disorders (TD) in patients with impaired glucose metabolism.

          Methods

          Prevalence of TD was calculated in patients with impaired glucose metabolism compared to healthy controls, aged over 30 years in phase 1 of the Tehran Thyroid Study (TTS). Follow up assessments were conducted every 3 yrs, after which incidence of TD was calculated and its correlations with age, sex, smoking, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyrotropin (TSH), insulin resistance index, triglycerides and cholesterol were assessed.

          Results

          Incidence of TD among 435 diabetics, 286 prediabetics, and 989 healthy controls at baseline was 14, 18, and 21 per 1000 patients per year, respectively, being significantly lower in diabetics than that in healthy controls, a difference however that was not significant after adjusting for the variables mentioned (OR:0.64, 95% CI: 0.39–1.01). The incidence of TD in subjects with baseline serum TSH>1.94 mU/L or TPOAb≥40 IU/ml in all three groups was higher than that in patients with TSH≤1.94 mU/L or TPOAb<40 IU/ml, and remained significant after variable adjustment. Baseline TSH>1.94 mU/L was predictive of TD with 70% sensitivity and specificity. Baseline serum TSH (ROC area: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.68–0.77) had better predictive value than TPOAb (ROC area: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.61–0.69) for developing TD.

          Conclusion

          Incidence of TD in type 2 diabetics or prediabetics is not higher than healthy controls. It is however necessary to conduct thyroid tests in patients with TPOAb≥40 IU/ml or TSH>1.94 mU/L.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030.

          The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people of all ages with diabetes for years 2000 and 2030. Data on diabetes prevalence by age and sex from a limited number of countries were extrapolated to all 191 World Health Organization member states and applied to United Nations' population estimates for 2000 and 2030. Urban and rural populations were considered separately for developing countries. The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. The urban population in developing countries is projected to double between 2000 and 2030. The most important demographic change to diabetes prevalence across the world appears to be the increase in the proportion of people >65 years of age. These findings indicate that the "diabetes epidemic" will continue even if levels of obesity remain constant. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, it is likely that these figures provide an underestimate of future diabetes prevalence.
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            The Colorado thyroid disease prevalence study.

            The prevalence of abnormal thyroid function in the United States and the significance of thyroid dysfunction remain controversial. Systemic effects of abnormal thyroid function have not been fully delineated, particularly in cases of mild thyroid failure. Also, the relationship between traditional hypothyroid symptoms and biochemical thyroid function is unclear. To determine the prevalence of abnormal thyroid function and the relationship between (1) abnormal thyroid function and lipid levels and (2) abnormal thyroid function and symptoms using modern and sensitive thyroid tests. Cross-sectional study. Participants in a statewide health fair in Colorado, 1995 (N = 25 862). Serum thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]) and total thyroxine (T4) concentrations, serum lipid levels, and responses to a hypothyroid symptoms questionnaire. The prevalence of elevated TSH levels (normal range, 0.3-5.1 mIU/L) in this population was 9.5%, and the prevalence of decreased TSH levels was 2.2%. Forty percent of patients taking thyroid medications had abnormal TSH levels. Lipid levels increased in a graded fashion as thyroid function declined. Also, the mean total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of subjects with TSH values between 5.1 and 10 mIU/L were significantly greater than the corresponding mean lipid levels in euthyroid subjects. Symptoms were reported more often in hypothyroid vs euthyroid individuals, but individual symptom sensitivities were low. The prevalence of abnormal biochemical thyroid function reported here is substantial and confirms previous reports in smaller populations. Among patients taking thyroid medication, only 60% were within the normal range of TSH. Modest elevations of TSH corresponded to changes in lipid levels that may affect cardiovascular health. Individual symptoms were not very sensitive, but patients who report multiple thyroid symptoms warrant serum thyroid testing. These results confirm that thyroid dysfunction is common, may often go undetected, and may be associated with adverse health outcomes that can be avoided by serum TSH measurement.
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              The incidence of thyroid disorders in the community: a twenty-year follow-up of the Whickham Survey.

              The original Whickham Survey documented the prevalence of thyroid disorders in a randomly selected sample of 2779 adults which matched the population of Great Britain in age, sex and social class. The aim of the twenty-year follow-up survey was to determine the incidence and natural history of thyroid disease in this cohort. Subjects were traced at follow-up via the Electoral Register, General Practice registers, Gateshead Family Health Services Authority register and Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. Eight hundred and twenty-five subjects (30% of the sample) had died and, in addition to death certificates, two-thirds had information from either hospital/General Practitioner notes or post-mortem reports to document morbidity prior to death. Of the 1877 known survivors, 96% participated in the follow-up study and 91% were tested for clinical, biochemical and immunological evidence of thyroid dysfunction. Outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality were determined for over 97% of the original sample. The mean incidence (with 95% confidence intervals) of spontaneous hypothyroidism in women was 3.5/1000 survivors/year (2.8-4.5) rising to 4.1/1000 survivors/year (3.3-5.0) for all causes of hypothyroidism and in men was 0.6/1000 survivors/year (0.3-1.2). The mean incidence of hyperthyroidism in women was 0.8/1000 survivors/year (0.5-1.4) and was negligible in men. Similar incidence rates were calculated for the deceased subjects. An estimate of the probability of the development of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism at a particular time, i.e. the hazard rate, showed an increase with age in hypothyroidism but no age relation in hyperthyroidism. The frequency of goitre decreased with age with 10% of women and 2% of men having a goitre at follow-up, as compared to 23% and 5% in the same subjects respectively at the first survey. The presence of a goitre at either survey was not associated with any clinical or biochemical evidence of thyroid dysfunction. In women, an association was found between the development of a goitre and thyroid-antibody status at follow-up, but not initially. The risk of having developed hypothyroidism at follow-up was examined with respect to risk factors identified at first survey. The odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) of developing hypothyroidism with (a) raised serum TSH alone were 8 (3-20) for women and 44 (19-104) for men; (b) positive anti-thyroid antibodies alone were 8 (5-15) for women and 25 (10-63) for men; (c) both raised serum TSH and positive anti-thyroid antibodies were 38 (22-65) for women and 173 (81-370) for men. A logit model indicated that increasing values of serum TSH above 2mU/l at first survey increased the probability of developing hypothyroidism which was further increased in the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies. Neither a positive family history of any form of thyroid disease nor parity of women at first survey was associated with increased risk of developing hypothyroidism. Fasting cholesterol and triglyceride levels at first survey when corrected for age showed no association with the development of hypothyroidism in women. This historical cohort study has provided incidence data for thyroid disease over a twenty-year period for a representative cross-sectional sample of the population, and has allowed the determination of the importance of prognostic risk factors for thyroid disease identified twenty years earlier.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: InvestigationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                3 October 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran
                [2 ] Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Aja University of Medical Science, Tehran, I.R. Iran
                [3 ] Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran
                [4 ] Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran
                [5 ] Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran
                The University of Tokyo, JAPAN
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-16-20522
                10.1371/journal.pone.0184808
                5626423
                28972979
                © 2017 Gholampour Dehaki et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 5, Pages: 13
                Product
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Endocrinology
                Endocrine Disorders
                Diabetes Mellitus
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Metabolic Disorders
                Diabetes Mellitus
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Endocrine System
                Thyroid
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Endocrine System
                Thyroid
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Endocrinology
                Endocrine Disorders
                Hypothyroidism
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Vascular Medicine
                Blood Pressure
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Endocrinology
                Endocrine Disorders
                Diabetes Mellitus
                Type 2 Diabetes
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Metabolic Disorders
                Diabetes Mellitus
                Type 2 Diabetes
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Lipids
                Cholesterol
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Hormones
                Peptide Hormones
                Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Chemical Elements
                Iodine
                Custom metadata
                The data set is the property of Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences (RIES) and is made available to members of the RIES upon approval of the research proposal by the research council and the ethics committee. The RIES and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU) ethics committee will need to be notified and must issue an approval in case of a request for access to the de-identified dataset from the corresponding author. The data can be obtained by a collaborative joint research project with Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences (RIES). Data request may be sent to Dr. Azita Zadeh-Vakili at email: azitavakili@ 123456endocrine.ac.ir .

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