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      Tobacco use and caries increment in young adults: a prospective observational study

      , 1 , 2

      BMC Research Notes

      BioMed Central

      Caries activity, Gender, Smoking, Smokeless tobacco

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          Abstract

          Objective

          Tobacco use has a negative influence on general and oral health but data concerning caries are mainly derived from epidemiological and cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate smoking and use of smokeless tobacco (Swedish snus) as determinants of dental caries increment in young adults over 3 years. The baseline cohort consisted of 1295 19-year-olds registered at eight Public Dental Clinics representing socioeconomic strata. After 3 years, 982 of the patients could be reexamined (drop-out rate 24.2%). Caries was scored as decayed and filled surfaces according the WHO criteria and the individual caries increment was recorded by counting the number of surfaces that changed from “sound” to “decayed/filled” over the study period. Information on habitual tobacco use (smoking, snuffing) was collected from a structured questionnaire at baseline.

          Results

          The baseline prevalence of smoking and use of Swedish snus was 22.3% and 6.3% respectively. Smoking, but not snuffing, displayed a statistically significant relationship with caries increment over 3 years. For smoking, the relative risk was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2–1.7) and the number needed to harm 6.8 (95% CI 4.5–14.2). Thus, habitual smoking is a risk factor for caries in young adults and the findings reinforce arguments that dental health professionals should incorporate anti-smoking activities in their preventive strategies.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s13104-019-4253-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Tobacco and Oral Diseases

           Jesper Reibel (2003)
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            Tobacco and dental caries: a systematic review.

            Despite the abundance of evidence linking tobacco consumption to many oral conditions, no systematic review of the relationship with dental caries is available. The main aim of this systematic review was, therefore, to evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking on dental caries in adult smokers. According to the PRISMA checklist, observational studies published from January 1991 to June 2011 were reviewed. The quality of evidence for each finding was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Five studies, four related to dental caries and one on oral bacteria activity, were finally included in a qualitative analysis; they were all cross-sectional studies. As a result, the overall quality of evidence was poor, with two articles given a score of very low and three a score of low according to GRADE. Tobacco smoking was found to be associated with an increased risk of dental caries. However, the overall poor quality of studies produced no validation for such an association. Further, more extensive research on this topic and prospective studies are needed.
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              Association of dental caries and salivary sIgA with tobacco smoking.

              Salivary secretory IgA (sIgA) is said to play an important role in the immune response against dental caries. This study aimed to determine the salivary sIgA levels in healthy smokers and non-smokers, and its correlation with dental caries.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                gunnel.hansel-petersson@mau.se
                stwe@sund.ku.dk
                Journal
                BMC Res Notes
                BMC Res Notes
                BMC Research Notes
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-0500
                11 April 2019
                11 April 2019
                2019
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9961 9487, GRID grid.32995.34, Department of Cariology, Faculty of Odontology, , Malmö University, ; 205 06, Malmö, Sweden
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0674 042X, GRID grid.5254.6, Department of Odontology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, , University of Copenhagen, ; Norre Allé 20, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
                Article
                4253
                10.1186/s13104-019-4253-9
                6458795
                30971314
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                Research Note
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Medicine

                caries activity, smokeless tobacco, smoking, gender

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