Objectives To investigate the value of cerebrospinal fluid chloride (CSF-Cl), cerebrospinal fluid glucose (CSF-GS), cerebrospinal fluid microalbumin (CSF-MALB), and cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase (CSF-ADA) in the differential diagnosis of secondary hydrocephalus. Methods 103 patients with secondary hydrocephalus treated in our hospital from January 2018 to April 2022 were selected. According to different types, it is divided into the hemorrhagic hydrocephalus group and tumor hydrocephalus group. By detecting the levels of inflammatory factors such as CSF-Cl, CSF-GS, CSF-MALB, and CSF-ADA in the two groups, we can analyze the value of these inflammatory factors in the differential diagnosis of secondary hydrocephalus. Results The level of CSF-MALB in the hemorrhagic hydrocephalus group was significantly higher than that in the tumor hydrocephalus group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P 0.05). The area under ROC curve (AUC) of CSF-Cl, CSF-GS, CSF-MALB, and CSF-ADA in the differential diagnosis of secondary hydrocephalus was 0.438, 0.553, 0.750, and 0.542, respectively, sensitivity was 15.1%, 45.3%, 79.2%, and 18.9%, respectively, and specificity was 96.0%, 80.0%, 80.0%, and 94.0%, respectively. Conclusions The inflammatory reaction of hemorrhagic hydrocephalus was significantly greater than that of tumor hydrocephalus. Moreover, CSF-MALB is closely related to the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. At the same time, CSF-MALB can be used as a good index for rapid differential diagnosis of secondary hydrocephalus.