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      Integrated analyses of lncRNAs microarray profiles and mRNA–lncRNA coexpression in smooth muscle cells under hypoxic and normoxic conditions

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          Hypoxia may cause abnormal proliferation and migration of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the media to the intima. This contributes to vessel narrowing and accelerates the process of atherosclerosis. The association of the aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) with the development and progression of atherosclerosis is well known; however, it is not well investigated in hypoxic VSMCs. Using a microarray approach, we identified 1056 and 2804 differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs, respectively, in hypoxic and normoxic mouse aorta smooth muscle (MOVAS) cells. Of them, we randomly chose several lncRNAs and validated the microarray data using the quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. Advanced bioinformatics analyses indicated that the up-regulated mRNAs were mainly involved in inflammatory responses, lipid metabolism, clearance of amyloid-β peptide, citrate cycle (TCA cycle), TGF-β signaling, and chemokine signaling. The down-regulated mRNAs were mainly involved in the apoptosis pathway, glycerolipid metabolism, Wnt signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway. The constructed coexpression network indicated interactions between 87 lncRNAs and ten mRNAs. In addition, we demonstrated that the silence of lncRNA NONMMUT002434 expression could abrogate the migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells dramatically. Our data provide comprehensive evidence on the differential expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs in hypoxic MOVAS cells, which may be valuable biomarkers for atherosclerotic diseases, and thereby facilitating diagnosis of atherosclerosis.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium.

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            The Gene Ontology (GO) project in 2006

            The Gene Ontology (GO) project () develops and uses a set of structured, controlled vocabularies for community use in annotating genes, gene products and sequences (also see ). The GO Consortium continues to improve to the vocabulary content, reflecting the impact of several novel mechanisms of incorporating community input. A growing number of model organism databases and genome annotation groups contribute annotation sets using GO terms to GO's public repository. Updates to the AmiGO browser have improved access to contributed genome annotations. As the GO project continues to grow, the use of the GO vocabularies is becoming more varied as well as more widespread. The GO project provides an ontological annotation system that enables biologists to infer knowledge from large amounts of data.
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              Atherosclerotic plaque progression and vulnerability to rupture: angiogenesis as a source of intraplaque hemorrhage.

              Observational studies of necrotic core progression identify intraplaque hemorrhage as a critical factor in atherosclerotic plaque growth and destabilization. The rapid accumulation of erythrocyte membranes causes an abrupt change in plaque substrate characterized by increased free cholesterol within the lipid core and excessive macrophage infiltration. Neoangiogenesis is associated closely with plaque progression, and microvascular incompetence is a likely source of intraplaque hemorrhage. Intimal neovascularization is predominantly thought to arise from the adventitia, where there are a plethora of pre-existing vasa vasorum. In lesions that have early necrotic cores, the majority of vessels invading from the adventitia occur at specific sites of medial wall disruption. A breech in the medial wall likely facilitates the rapid in-growth of microvessels from the adventitia, and exposure to an atherosclerotic environment stimulates abnormal vascular development characterized by disorganized branching and immature endothelial tubes with "leaky" imperfect linings. This network of immature blood vessels is a viable source of intraplaque hemorrhage providing erythrocyte-derived phospholipids and free cholesterol. The rapid change in plaque substrate caused by the excessive accumulation of erythrocytes may promote the transition from a stable to an unstable lesion. This review discusses the potential role of intraplaque vasa vasorum in lesion instability as it relates to plaque rupture.

                Author and article information

                Biosci Rep
                Biosci. Rep
                Bioscience Reports
                Portland Press Ltd.
                08 March 2019
                30 April 2019
                02 April 2019
                : 39
                : 4
                [1 ]Division of Cardiology, Departments of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Genetic Diagnosis Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: JiangTao Yan ( jtyan_tjh@ )
                © 2019 The Author(s).

                This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY).

                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Research Articles
                Research Article

                Life sciences

                smooth muscle cell, atherosclerosis, bioinformatics analyses, hypoxia, lncrna, mrna


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