This review deals with different aspects of hydrophobicity at nanostructured surfaces. Theoretical and geometric effects as well as those of surface feature geometry on hydrophobicity are explored in this article. This review includes surface modification methods used to change surface hydrophobicity and effect on adhesion of cells as nano substrate. A small chapter is devoted to hydrophobicity at self-assembled monolayers as a special type of nanostructured surface. To the different models describing hydrophobicity is devoted one up to dated chapter. Calculation methods including quantum, density functional theory, and molecular modeling bring novel perspectives to the study of hydrophobicity at nanostructured surfaces.