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      Perineural Injection for Treatment of Root-Signature Signs Associated with Lateralized Disk Material in Five Dogs (2009–2013)

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          Intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) is common in dogs; cervical IVDD accounts for 13–25% of all cases. Ventral slot decompression provides access to ventral and centrally extruded or protruded disk material. However, procedures to remove dorsally or laterally displaced material are more difficult. This case series describes the use of perineural injection as a potential treatment option for dogs experiencing root-signature signs associated with lateralized disk material in the cervical spine. Five dogs underwent fluoroscopically guided perineural injection of methylprednisolone ± bupivacaine. Most patients experienced improvement in root-signature signs and remained pain free without the assistance of oral pain medication. These findings suggest the perineural injection of methylprednisolone ± bupivacaine represents a viable option for dogs with cervical lateralized disk material causing root-signature signs.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Local corticosteroid application blocks transmission in normal nociceptive C-fibres.

          The effect of a locally applied depot form of a corticosteroid on the electrical properties of nerves was investigated in an experimental model. The segmental transmission in electrically stimulated A-fibres and in C-fibres of the plantar nerve in the anaesthetized rat was utilized. A drop of methylprednisolone acetate or vehicle constituent was placed on the dissected plantar nerve proximal to the stimulating electrodes after recording control responses (A-fibre volley in the sciatic nerve and C-fibre evoked reflex discharge in flexor motoneurons). The corticosteroid was found to suppress the transmission in thin unmyelinated C-fibres but not in myelinated A-beta fibres. The effect was found to be due to the corticosteroid per se. The effect was reversed when the corticosteroid was removed, which suggests a direct membrane action.
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            Intervertebral disc disease in dogs.

            Intervertebral disc herniation is a common cause of neurologic dysfunction in dogs. This article reviews the anatomy, pathophysiology, diagnostic imaging, treatment options, and prognosis for canine cervical and thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease. The extensive literature pertinent to intervertebral disc disease is reviewed with the goal of summarizing the information available to help clinicians in their decision making. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              High levels of inflammatory phospholipase A2 activity in lumbar disc herniations.

              Inflammation of neural elements is frequently mentioned clinically in association with lumbar radiculopathy. Mechanical embarrassment of neural elements by definable structural abnormalities is inadequate as a sole explanation of nerve injury in this condition. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether an enzymatic marker for inflammation (phospholipase A2) could be identified in human disc samples removed at surgery for radiculopathy due to lumbar disc disease. Samples were assayed for phospholipase A2 activity. The level of activity in the disc samples was compared with values obtained from other human tissues using the same assay. Specific activity (percent hydrolysis radiolabelled substrate) ranged from 238 to 1,014.5 nmol/min/mg. Mean activity for the human disc material was 568.7 nmol/min/mg, compared with 0.006 nmol/min/mg for human PMN, and 12.1 nmol/min/mg for inflammatory human synovial effusion. The pH and cation-related activity were identical to those demonstrated for phospholipase A2 inflammatory conditions. Human lumbar disc phospholipase A2 activity is from 20- to 100,000-fold more active than any other phospholipase A2 that has been described. As the enzyme responsible for the liberation of arachidonic acid from cell membranes, phospholipase A2 is the rate-limiting step in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. These data establish biochemical evidence of inflammation at the site of lumbar disc herniations.

                Author and article information

                Front Vet Sci
                Front Vet Sci
                Front. Vet. Sci.
                Frontiers in Veterinary Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                27 January 2016
                : 3
                1Lake Forest Animal Hospital , Forest, VA, USA
                2Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine , Blacksburg, VA, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Sarah A. Moore, The Ohio State University, USA

                Reviewed by: Bianca Hettlich, Vetsuisse Bern, Switzerland; Sheila Carrera-Justiz, University of Florida, USA

                *Correspondence: Sarah Giambuzzi, seg219@ 123456vt.edu

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Veterinary Neurology and Neurosurgery, a section of the journal Frontiers in Veterinary Science

                Copyright © 2016 Giambuzzi, Pancotto and Ruth.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 7, Words: 4823
                Veterinary Science
                Case Report


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